Satisfiability Modulo Transcendental Functions via Incremental Linearization
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In this paper we present an abstraction-refinement approach to Satisfiability Modulo the theory of transcendental functions, such as exponentiation and trigonometric functions. The transcendental functions are represented as uninterpreted in the abstract space, which is described in terms of the combined theory of linear arithmetic on the rationals with uninterpreted functions, and are incrementally axiomatized by means of upper- and lower-bounding piecewise-linear functions. Suitable numerical techniques are used to ensure that the abstractions of the transcendental functions are sound even in presence of irrationals. Our experimental evaluation on benchmarks from verification and mathematics demonstrates the potential of our approach, showing that it compares favorably with delta-satisfiability/interval propagation and methods based on theorem proving.