Advertisement

Redefining Energy Security: The New Prize in a Time of Arctic Petroleum Resources and Technological Development

  • Tina Hunter
Chapter
Part of the International Political Economy Series book series (IPES)

Abstract

This chapter challenges the traditional notion of energy security, arguing that new and emerging technologies pertaining to petroleum production and transport are creating a new energy paradigm. The production of previously inaccessible shale gas in North America and petroleum in the Arctic is challenging the existing energy paradigm that postulates energy security is built around security of supply, price affordability and environmental sustainability. This holds the Middle East as the major producer of petroleum and the US, Europe and Asia, the major consumers. Petroleum production from shale formations and offshore Arctic is changing this global dynamic as countries race to unlock new resources in the Arctic, potentially at any cost.

The new energy paradigm and the resultant realignment of international energy security that results from these developments will be examined. Technological developments, when combined with a changing physical world, are creating a new prize in petroleum: Arctic oil and gas, which will forever alter the traditional energy paradigm that has existed since the early twentieth century.

Bibliography

  1. Association for the Study of Peak Oil and Gas. 2008. About Peak Oil. http://www.peakoil.net/about-peak-oil. Accessed 10 Mar 2016.
  2. Atilhan, M., S. Aparicio, F. Benyahia, and E. Deniz. 2012. Natural Gas Hydrates. In Advances in Natural Gas Technology, ed. H.A. Al-Megren, 193–212. Rijeka: InTech.Google Scholar
  3. Bohi, D.R. 1999. Technological Improvement in Petroleum Exploration and Development. In Productivity in Natural Resource Industries: Improvement Through Innovation, ed. R. David Simpson. New York: Resources for the Future.Google Scholar
  4. BP. 2009. Statistical Review of World Energy June 2009.Google Scholar
  5. ———. 2014. Statistical Review of World Energy June 2014.Google Scholar
  6. Carter, J. 1980. State of the Union Address Delivered Before a Joint Session of the Congress, Speech Delivered at the United States Congress, Washington, DC, January 23. http://www.presidency.ucsb.edu/ws/?pid=33079. Accessed 1 Jan 2017.
  7. Central Intelligence Agency (CIA). 2015. The World Fact Book: Russia. https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/rs.html. Accessed 2 Sept 2016.
  8. Dloughy, Jennifer A. 2015. Arctic Drilling Rights OKd for Shell Oil. http://www.sfgate.com/nation/article/Arctic-drilling-rights-OKd-for-Shell-Oil-6171457.php. Accessed 12 Nov 2016.
  9. Energy Information Agency (EIA). 1993. Drilling Sideways – A Review of Horizontal Well Technology and Its Domestic Application. Natural Gas Monthly, April. DOE/EIA TR 0565.Google Scholar
  10. ———. 2015. US Field Production of Crude Oil. http://www.eia.gov/dnav/pet/hist/LeafHandler.ashx?n=pet&s=mcrfpus1&f=a. Accessed 22 Dec 2016.
  11. Gazprom. 2015. Shtokman: Strategy. http://www.gazprom.com/about/production/projects/deposits/shp/. Accessed 2 Apr 2015.
  12. Index Mundi. 2015a. Country Comparison: Oil Exports Top 10. http://www.indexmundi.com/g/r.aspx?t=10&v=95&l=en. Accessed 11 Nov 2016.
  13. ———. 2015b. Country Comparison: Natural Gas Exports Top 10. http://www.indexmundi.com/g/r.aspx?t=10&v=138&l=en. Accessed 31 Nov 2016.
  14. International Energy Agency. 2012. World Energy Outlook, 2012. http://www.iea.org/publications/freepublications/publication/WEO2012_free.pdfaccessed. 12 Jan 2017.
  15. International Gas Union. 2016. 2016 World LNG Report.Google Scholar
  16. Jones, Stan. 2013. Northern Sea Route Beckons LNG Shippers, Alaska Natural Gas Transportation Projects, Office of the Federal Coordinator. http://www.arcticgas.gov/northern-sea-route-beckons-lng-shippers. Accessed 1 Apr 2015.
  17. Klare, Michael T. 2000. Resource Competition and World Politics in the 21st Century. Current History 99 (641): 403–407.Google Scholar
  18. ———. 2001. Resource Wars: The New Landscape of Global Conflict. New York: Henry Holt Publisher.Google Scholar
  19. ———. 2002. Resources Wars: The New Landscape of Global Conflict. New York: Metropolitan Books.Google Scholar
  20. ———. 2015. From Scarcity to Abundance: The Changing Dynamics of Energy Conflict. Penn State Journal of Law and International Affairs 3 (2): 10–41.Google Scholar
  21. Medred, C. 2014. Korean Company Unveils Icebreaking LNG Tankers. Alaska Dispatch News, November 1. http://www.adn.com/article/20141101/korean-company-unveils-icebreaking-lng-tankers. Accessed 31 Mar 2015.
  22. Motomura, Masumi. 2014. Japan’s Need for Russian Oil and Gas: A Shift in Energy Flows to the Far East. Energy Policy 74: 68–79.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. National Energy Technology Laboratory. 2013. Modern Shale Gas Development in the United States: An Update. https://www.netl.doe.gov/File%20Library/Research/Oil-Gas/shale-gas-primer-update-2013.pdf. Accessed 29 Mar 2015.
  24. National Petroleum Council (NPC). 2015. Arctic Potential: Realizing the Promise of U.S. Arctic Oil and Gas Reserves. http://www.npcarcticpotentialreport.org/. Accessed 12 Apr 2016.
  25. Northern Sea Route Information Office. 2013. Transit Shipping on the NSR in the First Half of the Season of 2013. http://www.arctic-lio.com/node/201. Accessed 31 Apr 2015.
  26. Okugu, Bright. 2003. The Middle East and North Africa in a Changing Oil Market. IMF. https://www.imf.org/external/pubs/ft/med/2003/eng/okogu/okogu.html
  27. Stauffer, Peter. 2009. US Geological Survey (USGS) Circum-Arctic Resource Appraisal: Estimates of Undiscovered Oil and Gas North of the Arctic Circle. https://pubs.usgs.gov/fs/2008/3049/fs2008-3049.pdf.
  28. Stern, Jonathan. 2006. The Russian-Ukrainian Gas Crisis of January 2006. Oxford Institute of Energy Studies. https://www.oxfordenergy.org/wpcms/wp-content/uploads/2011/01/Jan2006-RussiaUkraineGasCrisis-JonathanStern.pdf.
  29. Stoff, Michael B. 1980. Oil, War and American Security: The Search for a National Policy on Foreign Oil, 1941–1947. New Haven: Yale University Press.Google Scholar
  30. Trembath, A., J. Jenkins, T. Nordhaus, and M. Shellenberger. 2012. Where the Shale Gas Revolution Came From: Governments Role in the Development of Hydraulic Fracturing in Shale. http://www.ourenergypolicy.org/wp-content/uploads/2012/05/Where_the_Shale_Gas_Revolution_Came_From.pdf
  31. Wang, Z., and A. Krupnick. 2013. A Retrospective Review of Shale Gas Development in the United States: What Led to The Boom, Resources for the Future Discussion Paper. http://www.rff.org/RFF/documents/RFF-DP-13-12.pdf. Accessed 21 Mar 2016.
  32. World Maritime News. 2013. Finland: Aker Arctic Technology Presents New Unique Ice Breaker. http://worldmaritimenews.com/archives/83688/finland-aker-arctic-technology-presents-new-unique-ice-breaker/. Accessed 1 Apr 2016.
  33. Yergin, Daniel. 1991. The Prize: The Epic Quest for Oil, Money and Power. 3rd ed. New York: Simon and Schuster.Google Scholar
  34. ———. 2006. Ensuring Energy Security. Foreign Affairs 85 (2): 69–82.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. ———. 2009. The Prize: The Epic Quest for Oil, Money and Power. New York: Free Press.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Tina Hunter
    • 1
  1. 1.School of LawUniversity of AberdeenAberdeenScotland

Personalised recommendations