Mangrove Floristics and Biogeography Revisited: Further Deductions from Biodiversity Hot Spots, Ancestral Discontinuities, and Common Evolutionary Processes

  • Norman C. DukeEmail author


This treatment provides an updated account of mangrove biodiversity patterns and evolution based on ancestral biogeography and extant floristics. Mangrove plants occur where they do in the world because past and current factors influence their dispersal and establishment. Key limiting factors include: land barriers, dispersal across water, climatic conditions, and availability of biotic material. Over time, each of these factors has morphed and changed as each driver varied during the evolution of the 80 species and hybrids from at least 18 family lineages. In this treatment, the factors influencing current distributional patterns have been looked at closely with the specific distributions of each genotype considering prior historical influences. Distributional patterns, like diversity hot spots spanning large geographic areas, species gradients, and discontinuities are considered tangible evidence of the appearance and evolution of each mangrove entity.


Mangrove Biogeography Phytogeography Dispersal Phylogenetics Phylogeny Distribution Disjunction Discontinuity Diversity hot Spots IWP AEP 


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.James Cook University TropWATER CentreTownsvilleAustralia

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