The African Union (AU) has come a long way in establishing the foundations for collective regional peace and security. The achievements have, however, been less than expected. This concluding chapter notes that although the progress made thus far is significant and commendable, Africa’s gains continue to be chequered by mal-governance; interference in the affairs of states by external powers (such as the United States [US], Britain, France, and now China); shortfalls in financial and other resource needs; and human capacity deficits. The chapter highlights the plethora of challenges faced by Africa and its peace and security institutions, and provides suggestions for overcoming these challenges. It also seeks to identify the multiple and complex challenges related to the realisation of a genuine, systematic, and functional institutional framework that will promote peace and build prosperous and sustainable communities in Africa.