Pax Nigeriana Versus Pax Gallica: ECOWAS and UN Peacekeeping in Mali
This chapter assesses the historical leadership ambitions and hegemonic regional roles of Nigeria and France through the peacekeeping mission in Mali in 2013. This case is used to examine the paradoxical confluence and clash of both countries’ foreign policies, arguing that Paris outmanoeuvred Abuja by using the United Nations (UN), the European Union (EU), and the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS) more effectively to promote its goals. The chapter also analyses the failure of the African-led International Support Mission in Mali (AFISMA), headed by Nigeria, to gain external logistical and financial support, resulting in AFISMA being converted into a French-dominated UN mission after the Gallic military intervention in Mali in January 2013. The concluding section examines the future regional roles of France and Nigeria.