3D Bioprinting in Transplantation
The continued rise in patients suffering from organ failure has raised the need for additional sources for replacement organs to improve the quality of life for these patients. Organ transplantation is the standard of care for end-stage organ disease, and as such, there has been an ever-increasing need worldwide to find suitable grafts for those patients.
In the last decade, the field of biomedical engineering has made important technological advances in tissue bioengineering through the use of three-dimensional bioprinting. These innovative advances have contributed to developing biocompatible materials and supporting scaffolds that allow the production of functional tissues and printed organ models. 3D printing in medicine could eventually allow the application of printed tissues and organs to replace damaged or irreparable grafts from trauma or disease. Using these new and emerging additive-manufacturing technologies, it is hoped to be able to implant printed synthetics for end-stage organ disease (ESOD) and help with the shortage of viable organs for transplantation.
Multiple bioprinter configurations for tissue printing along with printing techniques have emerged to revolutionize the creation of 3D biostructures. Current advances of tissue bioengineering strive to allow for self-assembly of cells and tissues to become a reality, which would augment the possibility of generating new graft models. Around the world, scientists have developed vascular grafts, liver, kidney, and heart models that are in various stages of development and in some cases have been implanted in animal models. Many years of work are still to come in order for these basic models to be useful for human implantation.
Ultimately, the goal of developing bioprinted tissues and organs is to overcome the shortage of available grafts. Furthermore, these replacement tissues could be made of cells from the donor, thereby reducing the risk of rejection and the levels of immunosuppressive agents being used.
KeywordsTissue engineering Organ engineering Regenerative medicine Tissue-engineered vascular grafts Transplantation
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