Venous Diseases in Malignancy

  • Rohit Ram
  • Joshua KubanEmail author


Malignancy is known to induce a hypercoagulable state and literature evidence has long supported that a significant proportion of morbidity and mortality in patients with a known malignancy is attributable to thromboembolic events. A high incidence of venous and, to a lesser extent, arterial thrombosis is observed and in several instances a thromboembolic event such as deep venous thrombosis or pulmonary embolism may be the presenting event that leads to unmasking an underlying malignancy. This dates back to Trousseau’s astute description in 1860s of migratory thrombophlebitis harboring an occult malignancy [1].


Venous disease Malignancy 


  1. 1.
    Trousseau A. Phlegmasia alba dolens. Lectures on clinical medicine, delivered at the Hotel-Dieu, Paris 1865;5:281–332.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Falanga A, Marchetti M, Russo L. The mechanisms of cancer-associated thrombosis. Thromb Res. 2015;135:S8–11.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Heit JA. The epidemiology of venous thromboembolism in the community. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2008;28(3):370–2.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Fuentes HE, Tafur AJ, Caprini JA. Cancer-associated thrombosis. Dis Mon. 2016;62(5):121–58.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Spencer FA, Emery C, Lessard D, Anderson F, Emani S, Aragam J, Goldberg RJ. The Worcester venous thromboembolism study. J Gen Intern Med. 2006;21(7):722–7.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Blom JW. Malignancies, prothrombotic mutations, and the risk of venous thrombosis. JAMA. 2005;293(6):715.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Walker AJ, Card TR, West J, Crooks C, Grainge MJ. Incidence of venous thromboembolism in patients with cancer – a cohort study using linked United Kingdom databases. Eur J Cancer. 2013;49(6):1404–13.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Fennerty A. Venous thromboembolic disease and cancer. Postgrad Med J. 2006;82:642–8.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Krutman M, Kuzniec S, Ramacciotti E, Varella AYM, Zlotnik M, Teivelis MP, Tachibana A, De Campos Guerra JC, Wolosker N. Rediscussing anticoagulation in distal deep venous thrombosis. Clin Appl Thromb Hemost. 2016;22:772–8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Michelangelo S, Migliaccio L, Favaretto E, Palareti G, Cosmi B. Two years outcome of isolated distal deep vein thrombosis. Thromb Res. 2014;134(1):36–40.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Sartori M, Cosmi B, Legnani C, Favaretto E, Valdré L, Guazzaloca G, Rodorigo G, Cini M, Palareti G. The Wells rule and D-dimer for the diagnosis of isolated distal deep vein thrombosis. J Thromb Haemost. 2012;10(11):2264–9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Galanaud J, Bosson J, Quéré I. Risk factors and early outcomes of patients with symptomatic distal vs. proximal deep-vein thrombosis. Curr Opin Pulm Med. 2011;17(5):387–91.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Vedantham S, Grassi CJ, Ferral H, et al. Reporting standards for endovascular treatment of lower extremity deep vein thrombosis. J Vasc Interv Radiol. 2005;17:417–34.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Meissner MN, Strandness DE. Pathophysiology and natural history of deep venous thrombosis. In: Rutherford RB, editor. Vascular surgery. 5th ed. Philadelphia: WB Saunders; 2000. p. 1920–37.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Delis KT, Bountouroglou B, Mansfield AO. Venous claudication in iliofemoral thrombosis: long-term effects on venous hemodynamics, clinical status, and quality of life. J Vasc Surg. 2004;239:1143.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Kahn SR. The post thrombotic syndrome. Thromb Res. 2011;127(Suppl 3):S89–92.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Kahn SR. How I treat postthrombotic syndrome. Blood. 2009;114:4624–31.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Heit JA. Predicting the risk of venous thromboembolism recurrence. Am J Hematol. 2012;87:S1.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Heit JA, Lahr BD, Petterson TM, Bailey KR, Ashrani AA, Melton LJ. Heparin and warfarin anticoagulation intensity as predictors of recurrence after deep vein thrombosis or pulmonary embolism: a population-based cohort study. Blood. 2011;118(18):4992–9.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Heit JA, O’Fallon WM, Petterson TM, Lohse CM, Silverstein MD, Mohr DN, Melton LJ. Relative impact of risk factors for deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism. Arch Intern Med. 2002;162(11):1245.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Hull R, Hirsh J, Sackett DL, Taylor DW, Carter C, Turpie AG, Gent M. Clinical validity of a negative venogram in patients with clinically suspected venous thrombosis. Circulation. 1981;64(3):622–5. doi:10.1161/01.cir.64.3.622.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Arnoult A-C, Pernod G, Genty C, Galanaud J-P, Colonna M, Sevestre M-A, Bosson J-L. Low incidence of cancer after venous thromboembolism: an update from the French OPTIMEV Cohort. J Mal Vasc. 2016;41(3):169–75.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Chinsakchai K, Duis KT, Moll FL, Borst GJ. Trends in management of phlegmasia cerulea dolens. Vasc Endovascular Surg. 2010;45(1):5–14. doi:10.1177/1538574410388309.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Wells PS, Anderson DR, Rodger M, Stiell I, Dreyer JF, Barnes D, Forgie M, Kovacs G, Ward J, Kovacs MJ. Excluding pulmonary embolism at the bedside without diagnostic imaging: management of patients with suspected pulmonary embolism presenting to the emergency department by using a simple clinical model and d-dimer. Ann Intern Med. 2001;135(2):98–107. PMID: 11453709.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Wicki J, Perneger TV, Junod AF, Bounameaux H, Perrier A. Assessing clinical probability of pulmonary embolism in the emergency ward: a simple score. Arch Intern Med. 2001;161(1):92–7. doi:10.1001/archinte.161.1.92. PMID 11146703.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Schulman S, Kearon C, Kakkar AK, for the RE-COVER Study Group. Dabigatran versus warfarin in the treatment of acute venous thromboembolism. N Engl J Med. 2009;361(24):2342–52.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Schulman S, Kakkar AK, Goldhaber SZ, for the RE-COVER II Trial Investigators. Treatment of acute venous thromboembolism with dabigatran or warfarin and pooled analysis. Circulation. 2014;129(7):764–72.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Bauersachs R, Berkowitz SD, Brenner B, Buller HR, Decousus H, Gallus AS, Schellong S. Oral rivaroxaban for symptomatic venous thromboembolism. N Engl J Med. 2010;363(26):2499–510.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    EINSTEIN-PE Investigators, Büller HR, Prins MH, Lensin AW, Decousus H, Jacobson BF, Minar E, Chlumsky J, Verhamme P, Wells P, Agnelli G, Cohen A, Berkowitz SD, Bounameaux H, Davidson BL, Misselwitz F, Gallus AS, Raskob GE, Schellong S, Segers A. Oral rivaroxaban for the treatment of symptomatic pulmonary embolism. N Engl J Med. 2012;366(14):1287–97.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Agnelli G, Buller HR, Cohen A, Curto M, Gallus AS, Johnson M, Masiukiewicz U, Pak R, Thompson J, Raskob GE, Weitz JI, AMPLIFY Investigators. Oral apixaban for the treatment of acute venous thromboembolism. N Engl J Med. 2013;369(9):799–808.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Hokusai-VTE Investigators, Büller HR, Décousus H, Grosso MA, Mercuri M, Middeldorp S, Prins MH, et al. Edoxaban versus warfarin for the treatment of symptomatic venous thromboembolism. N Engl J Med. 2013;369:1406–15.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Kearon C, Akl EA, Ornelas J, Blaivas A, Jimenez D, Bounameaux H, et al. Antithrombotic therapy for VTE disease: CHEST guideline and expert panel report. Chest. 2016;149(2):315–52.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Kearon C, Akl EA, Comerota AJ, Prandoni P, Bounameaux H, Goldhaber SZ, et al. Antithrombotic therapy for VTE disease. Chest. 2012;142(6):1698–704.Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Braaten J, Goss R, Francis C, et al. Ultrasound reversibly disaggregates fibrin fibers. Thromb Haemost. 1997;78:1063–8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Vedantham S, Thorpe PE, Cardella JF, et al. Quality improvement guidelines for the treatment of lower extremity deep vein thrombosis with use of endovascular thrombus removal. J Vasc Interv Radiol. 2006;17:435–48.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Patel N, Sacks D, Patel RI, et al. SIR reporting standards for the treatment of acute limb ischemia with use of transluminal removal of arterial thrombus. J Vasc Interv Radiol. 2003;14(Suppl):S453–65.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Vedantham S, Millward SF, Cardella JF, Hofmann LV, Razavi MK, Grassi CJ, et al. Society of Interventional Radiology Position Statement: treatment of acute iliofemoral deep vein thrombosis with use of adjunctive catheter-directed intrathrombus thrombolysis. J Vasc Interv Radiol. 2009;20(7 Suppl):S332–5.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Tapson VF. Acute pulmonary embolism. N Engl J Med. 2008;358(10):1037–52.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Attia J, Ray JG, Cook DJ, et al. Deep vein thrombosis and its prevention in critically ill adults. Arch Intern Med. 2001;161:1268e79.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Jaff MR, McMurtry MS, Archer SL, Cushman M, Goldenberg N, Goldhaber SZ, et al. Management of massive and submassive pulmonary embolism, iliofemoral deep vein thrombosis, and chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension: a scientific statement from the American Heart Association. Circulation. 2011;123(16):1788–830.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Goldhaber SZ, Visani L, De Rosa M. Acute pulmonary embolism: clinical outcomes in the International Cooperative Pulmonary Embolism Registry (ICOPER). Lancet. 1999;353(9162):1386–9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Agnelli G, Becattini C, Kirschstein T. Thrombolysis vs heparin in the treatment of pulmonary embolism: a clinical outcome-based meta-analysis. Arch Intern Med. 2002;162(22):2537–41.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Levine M, Hirsh J, Weitz J, et al. A randomized trial of a single bolus dosage regimen of recombinant tissue plasminogen activator in patients with acute pulmonary embolism. Chest. 1990;98(6):1473–9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Dong B, Jirong Y, Wang Q, Wu T. Thrombolytic treatment for pulmonary embolism. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2006;(2):CD004437.Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    Wan S, Quinlan DJ, Agnelli G, Eikelboom JW. Thrombolysis compared with heparin for the initial treatment of pulmonary embolism: a meta-analysis of the randomized controlled trials. Circulation. 2004;110(6):744–9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Meyer G, Vicaut E, Danays T, et al. Fibrinolysis for patients with intermediate-risk pulmonary embolism. NEJM. 2014;370:1402–11.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Goa G, Yang P, Liu M, et al. Thrombolysis for acute intermediate-risk pulmonary embolism: a meta-analysis. Thromb Res. 2015;136(5):932–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Sharifi M, Bay C, Skrocki L, et al. Moderate pulmonary embolism treated with thrombolysis (from the “MOPETT” Trial). Am J Cardiol. 2013;111:273–7.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Kuo W, Gould M, Louie J, et al. Catheter-directed therapy for the treatment of massive pulmonary embolism: systematic review and meta-analysis of modern techniques. J Vasc Interv Radiol. 2009;20(11):1431–40.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Piazza G, Hohlfelder B, Ouriel, et al. A prospective, single-arm, multicenter trial of ultrasound-facilitated, catheter-directed, low-dose fibrinolysis for acute massive and submassive pulmonary embolism: The SEATTLE II study. JACC Cardiovasc Interv. 2015 Aug 24;8(10):1382–92.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Kennedy R, Kenney H, Dunfee B, et al. Thrombus resolution and hemodynamic recovery using ultrasound-accelerated thrombolysis in acute pulmonary embolism. J Vasc Interv Radiol. 2013;24:841–8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Bagla S, Smirniotopoulos J, van Breda A, et al. Ultrasound-accelerated catheter-directed thrombolysis for acute submassive pulmonary embolism. J Vasc Interv Radiol. 2015;26:1001–6.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Kuo W, Banerjee A, Kim P, et al. Pulmonary Embolism Response to Fragmentation, Embolectomy, and Catheter Thrombolysis (PERFECT): initial results from a Prospective Multicenter Registry. Chest. 2015 Sep;148(3):667–73.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Kuchar N, Boekstegers P, Muller O, et al. Randomized, controlled trial of ultrasound-assisted catheter directed thrombolysis for acute intermediate-risk pulmonary embolism (Ultima Trial). Circulation. 2014;129:479–86.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Molvar C. Inferior vena cava filtration in the management of venous thromboembolism: filtering the data. Semin Intervent Radiol. 2012;29(03):204–17.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Harvey JJ, Hopkins J, Mccafferty IJ, Jones RG. Inferior vena cava filters: what radiologists need to know. Clin Radiol. 2013;68(7):721–32.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    PREPIC Study Group. Eight-year follow-up of patients with permanent vena cava filters in the prevention of pulmonary embolism: the PREPIC (Prevention du Risque d’Embolie Pulmonaire par Interruption Cave) randomized study. Circulation. 2005;112(3):416–22.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Mismetti P, Laporte S, Pellerin O, et al. Effect of a retrievable inferior vena cava filter plus anticoagulation vs anticoagulation alone on risk of recurrent pulmonary embolism: a randomized clinical trial. JAMA. 2015;313(16):1627–35.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Kim HS, Young MJ, Narayan AK, Hong K, Liddell RP, Streiff MB. A comparison of clinical outcomes with retrievable and permanent inferior vena cava filters. J Vasc Interv Radiol. 2008;19(3):393–9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Greenfield LJ, Proctor MC. Suprarenal filter placement. J Vasc Surg. 1998;28:432–8, discussion 438CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Kalva S, Chlapoutaki C, Wicky S, Greenfield AJ, Waltman AC, Athanasoulis CA. Suprarenal inferior vena cava filters: a 20-year single-center experience. J Vasc Interv Radiol. 2008;19(7):1041–7.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Owens CA, Bui JT, Knuttinen MG, et al. Pulmonary embolism from upper extremity deep vein thrombosis and the role of superior vena cava filters: a review of the literature. J Vasc Interv Radiol. 2010;21:779e87.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Mansour A, Ismael Y, Abdel-Razeq H. Inferior vena cava filters in patients with advanced-stage cancer. Hematol Oncol Stem Cell Ther. 2014;7(4):136–41.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Jarrett BP, Dougherty MJ, Calligaro KD. Inferior vena cava filters in malignant disease. J Vasc Surg. 2002;36(4):704–7.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Wallace MJ, Jean JL, Gupta S, Eapen GA, Johnson MM, Ahrar K, et al. Use of inferior vena caval filters and survival in patients with malignancy. Cancer. 2004;101(8):1902–7.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Hunter W, Johnston W. The history of an aneurysm of the aorta, with some remarks on aneurysms in general. London: William Johnston; 1757.Google Scholar
  67. 67.
    Wilson LD, Detterbeck FC, Yahalom J. Clinical practice. Superior vena cava syndrome with malignant causes. N Engl J Med. 2007;356:1862–9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Rice TW, Rodriguez RM, Light RW. The superior vena cava syndrome: clinical characteristics and evolving etiology. Medicine (Baltimore). 2006;85:37–42.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Kishi K, Sonomura T, Mitsuzane K, Nishida N, Yang RJ, Sato M, et al. Self-expandable metallic stent therapy for superior vena cava syndrome: clinical observations. Radiology. 1993;189(2):531–5.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Yu JB, Wilson LD, Detterbeck FC. Superior vena cava syndrome: a proposed classification system and algorithm for management. J Thorac Oncol. 2008;3(811–814):8.Google Scholar
  71. 71.
    Schafer S. Oncologic complications. In: Otto S, editor. Oncology nursing. 3rd ed. St. Louis: Mosby Yearbook; 1997. p. 406–74.Google Scholar
  72. 72.
    Davenport D, Ferree C, Blake D, Raben M. Radiation therapy in the treatment of superior vena caval obstruction. Cancer. 1978;42:2600–3. doi:<2600.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Straka C, Ying J, Kong F, Willey CD, Kaminski J, Kim DW. Review of evolving etiologies, implications and treatment strategies for the superior vena cava syndrome. SpringerPlus. 2016;5(1) doi:
  74. 74.
    Gwon DI, Ko G-Y, Kim JH, Shin JH, Yoon H-K, Sung K-B. Malignant superior vena cava syndrome: a comparative cohort study of treatment with covered stents versus uncovered stents. Radiology. 2013;266(3):979–87.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Rachapalli V, Boucher LM. Superior vena cava syndrome: role of the interventionalist. Can Assoc Radiol J. 2014;65:168–76. doi:10.1016/j. carj.2012.09.003.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Riva N, Donadini MP, Dentali F, Squizzato A, Ageno W. Clinical approach to splanchnic vein thrombosis: Risk factors and treatment. Thromb Res. 2012;130(Suppl. 1):S1–3.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Thatipelli MR, McBane RD, Hodge DO, Wysokinski WE. Survival and recurrence in patients with splanchnic vein thromboses. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2010;8:200–5.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Kralovics R, Passamonti F, Buser AS, Teo SS, Tiedt R, Passweg JR, et al. A gain-of-function mutation of JAK2 in myeloproliferative disorders. N Engl J Med. 2005;352(17):1779–90.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Colaizzo D, Amitrano L, Tiscia GL, Scenna G, Grandone E, Guardascione MA, et al. The JAK2 V617F mutation frequently occurs in patients with portal and mesenteric venous thrombosis. J Thromb Haemost. 2007;5(1):55–61.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Dentali F, Squizzato A, Brivio L, Appio L, Campiotti L, Crowther M, et al. JAK2V617F mutation for the early diagnosis of Ph- myeloproliferative neoplasms in patients with venous thromboembolism: a meta-analysis. Blood. 2009;113:5617–23.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Xavier SG, Gadelha T, Rezende SM, Zalcberg IR, Spector N. JAK2V617F mutation in patients with thrombosis: to screen or not to screen? Int J Lab Hematol. 2011;33:117–24.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Kumar S, Sarr MG, Kamath PS. Mesenteric venous thrombosis. N Engl J Med. 2001;345:1683–8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Boley SJ, Kaleya RN, Brandt LJ. Mesenteric venous thrombosis. Surg Clin North Am. 1992;72:183–201.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Duran R, Denys AL, Letovanec I, Meuli RA, Schmidt S. Multidetector CT features of mesenteric vein thrombosis. Radiographics. 2012;32(5):1503–22. doi:10.1148/rg.325115100.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    de Franchis R, on behalf of the Baveno V Faculty. Revising consensus in portal hypertension: report of the Baveno V consensus workshop on methodology of diagnosis and therapy in portal hypertension. J Hepatol. 2010;53:762–8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Poplausky M, Kaufman J, Geller S, et al. Mesenteric venous thrombosis treated with urokinase via the superior mesenteric artery. Gastroenterology. 1996;110:1633–5.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Hoffer E, Krohmer S, Gemery J, et al. Endovascular recanalization of symptomatic portomesenteric venous obstruction after pancreaticoduodenectomy and radiation. J Vasc Interv Radiol. 2009;20(12):1633–7.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Haskal Z. Power – pulse thrombolysis, thrombectomy, and TIPS formation for the accelerated treatment of portosplenomesenteric thrombosis in Budd Chiari syndrome. J Vasc Interv Radiol. 2007;18(11):1458–60.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Kim H, Patra A, Khan J, et al. Transhepatic catheter directed thrombectomy and thrombolysis of acute superior mesenteric venous thrombosis. J Vasc Interv Radiol. 2005;16(12):1685–91.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Luo J, Yan Z, Wang J, et al. Endovascular treatment for non-acute symptomatic portal venous thrombosis through intrahepatic portosystemic shunt approach. J Vasc Interv Radiol. 2011;22(1):61–9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Jia Z, Jiang G, Tian F, et al. Early endovascular treatment of superior mesenteric occlusion secondary to thromboemboli. Eur J Vasc Endovasc Surg. 2014;47(2):196–203.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Hollingshead M, Burke C, Mauro M, et al. Transcatheter thrombolytic therapy for acute mesenteric and portal vein thrombosis. J Vasc Interv Radiol. 2005;16(5):651–61.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Liu FY, Wang MQ, Fan QS, et al. Interventional treatment for symptomatic acute-subacute portal and superior mesenteric vein thrombosis. World J Gastroenterol. 2009;15(40):5028–34.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Yamakado K, Nakatsuka A, Tanaka N, et al. Portal venous stent placement in patients with pancreatic and biliary neoplasms invading portal veins and causing portal hypertension: initial experience. Radiology. 2001;220:150–6.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Keussen I. Interventional treatment of mesenteric venous occlusion. Pol J Radiol. 2014;79:233–8. doi:10.12659/pjr.890990.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Wang MQ, Guo LP, Lin HY, et al. Transradial approach for transcatheter selective superior mesenteric artery urokinase infusion therapy in patients with acute extensive portal and superior mesenteric vein thrombosis. Cardiovasc Intervent Radiol. 2010;33:80–9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Safieddine N, Mamazza J, Common A, et al. Splenic and superior mesenteric artery thrombolytic infusion therapy for acute portal and mesenteric vein thrombosis. Can J Surg. 2007;50:68–9.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Cao G, Ko GY, Sung KB, et al. Treatment of postoperative main portal vein and superior mesenteric vein thrombosis with balloon angioplasty and/or stent placement. Acta Radiol. 2013;54:526–32.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Baylor College of MedicineHoustonUSA

Personalised recommendations