Methods Section: Quantitative and Qualitative Examination of Social Identities and Their Mutual Relations

  • Olja Jovanović
  • Marko Vladisavljević
  • Marija Branković
  • Iris Žeželj


The chapter provides an overview of the methods used in the investigation of youth social identities in the Western Balkans. For quantitative part of the study, 767 young people aged 20–30 years from four Western Balkan countries were surveyed. Each country sample includes an ethnic majority and an ethnic minority with a history of tensions or violent conflict. The survey measured their identifications with a wide range of social groups, from local, ethnic, religious, and national to the overarching identities (Balkans, Europe). The chapter further describes the qualitative portion with focus groups and case studies in each city, the guidelines followed in conducting the studies, and the data analysis procedures. The chapter closes with remarks on the importance of integrating quantitative and qualitative data.


  1. Abdelal, R., Herrera, Y. M., Johnston, A. I., & McDermott, R. (2006). Identity as a variable. Perspectives on Politics, 4, 695–711.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Binder, J., Zagefka, H., Brown, R., Funke, F., Kessler, T., Mummendey, A., … Leyens, J. P. (2009). Does contact reduce prejudice or does prejudice reduce contact? A longitudinal test of the contact hypothesis among majority and minority groups in three European countries. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 96, 843–856.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Brewer, M. B., & Pierce, K. P. (2005). Social identity complexity and outgroup tolerance. Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin, 31, 428–437.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Brislin, R. W. (1970). Back-translation for cross-cultural research. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 1, 185–216.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Brown, R., Eller, A., Leeds, S., & Stace, K. (2007). Intergroup contact and intergroup attitudes: A longitudinal study. European Journal of Social Psychology, 37, 692–703.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Cameron, C. A., Tapanya, S., & Gillen, J. (2006). Swings, hammocks, and rocking chairs as secure bases during “A Day in the Life” in diverse cultures. Child and Youth Care Forum, 35, 231–247.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Cameron, C. A., Theron, L., Ungar, M., & Liebenberg, L. (2011). Adapting visual methodologies to identify youth protective processes in negotiating resilience across cultures and contexts. Australian Community Psychologist, 23, 68–84.Google Scholar
  8. Didkowsky, N., Ungar, M., & Liebenberg, L. (2010). Using visual methods to capture embedded processes of resilience for youth across cultures and contexts. Journal of the Canadian Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 19, 12.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  9. Dommelen, A., Schmid, K., Hewstone, M., Gonsalkorale, K., & Brewer, M. (2015). Construing multiple ingroups: Assessing social identity inclusiveness and structure in ethnic and religious minority group members. European Journal of Social Psychology, 45, 386–399.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. EVS. (2016). European Values Study 2008: Integrated Dataset (EVS 2008). GESIS Data Archive, Cologne.Google Scholar
  11. Gillen, J., Cameron, C. A., Tapanya, S., Pinto, G., Hancock, R., Young, S., & AccortiGamannossi, B. (2006). “A Day in the Life”: Advancing a methodology for the cultural study of development and learning in early childhood. Early Child Development and Care, 177, 207–218.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Leech, N., & Onwuegbuzie, A. (2007). An array of qualitative data analysis tools: A call for data analysis triangulation. School Psychology Quarterly, 22, 557–584.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Mason, J. (1996). Qualitative researching. London: Sage.Google Scholar
  14. Pettigrew, T. F. (1997). Generalized intergroup contact effects on prejudice. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 23, 173–185.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Roccas, S., & Brewer, M. B. (2002). Social identity complexity. Personality and Social Psychology Review, 6, 88–106.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Rowley, J. (2011). Using case studies in research. Management Research News, 25, 16–27.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Sandelowski, M. (2000). Whatever happened to qualitative description? Research in Nursing & Health, 23, 334–340.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Schmid, K., Hewstone, M., Küpper, B., Zick, A., & Wagner, U. (2012). Secondary transfer effects of intergroup contact: A cross-national comparison in Europe. Social Psychology Quarterly, 75, 28–51.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Smith, J. A., Osborn, M., & Jarman, M. (1999). Doing interpretative phenomenological analysis. In M. Murray & K. Chamberlain (Eds.), Qualitative health psychology: Theories and methods (pp. 218–240). London: Sage.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Taylor, G. W., & Ussher, J. M. (2001). Making sense of S&M: A discourse analytic account. Sexualities, 4, 293–314.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Willing, C. (2008). Introducing qualitative research in psychology: Adventures in theory and method. Berkshire: Open University Press.Google Scholar
  22. Yin, R. K. (2014). Case study research: Design and methods. London: SAGE Publications, Inc..Google Scholar
  23. Zagefka, H., & Brown, R. (2002). The relationship between acculturation strategies, relative fit and intergroup relations: Immigrant-majority relations in Germany. European Journal of Social Psychology, 32, 171–188.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Olja Jovanović
    • 1
  • Marko Vladisavljević
    • 2
  • Marija Branković
    • 3
  • Iris Žeželj
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of PsychologyUniversity of BelgradeBelgradeSerbia
  2. 2.Institute of Economic SciencesBelgradeSerbia
  3. 3.Department of PsychologySingidunum UniversityBelgradeSerbia

Personalised recommendations