Advertisement

Staff Training

  • Karola Dillenburger
Chapter
Part of the Autism and Child Psychopathology Series book series (ACPS)

Abstract

Behaviour therapy and applied behaviour analysis have a long tradition of establishing strategies to train staff. This chapter discusses the importance of staff training for behaviour interventionists. Staff training is a significant factor of efficiency in any industry or organisation. Staff training for behaviour analysts in education, social and health care and residential settings is discussed.

Keywords

Staff training Behaviour analysts Training procedures Performance management 

References

  1. Abernathy, W. (2011). Pay for profit: Designing an organization-wide performance-based compensation system. Atlanta, GA: Performance Management Publications Inc.Google Scholar
  2. Arco, L. (2008). Feedback for improving staff training and performance in behavioral treatment programs. Behavioral Interventions. doi: 10.1002/bin.247.
  3. Arco, L., & du Toit, E. (2006). Effects of adding on-the-job feedback to conventional analog staff training in a nursing home. Behavior Modification, 30(5), 713–735. doi: 10.1177/0145445505281058.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Autism Speaks. (2014). State initiatives. Autism speaks. Retrieved 21 Jul 2014, from http://www.autismspeaks.org/advocacy/states
  5. BACB. (2015). Behavior analyst certification board. BACB. Retrieved 3 May 2015, from www.bacb.com
  6. Barnes, C. S., Dunning, J. L., & Rehfeldt, R. A. (2011). An evaluation of strategies for training staff to implement the picture exchange communication system. Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders, 5(4), 1574–1583. doi: 10.1016/j.rasd.2011.03.003.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. BASW. (2016). Guidance for practitioners from social care and health services in developing culturally competent practice. British Association for Social Work. Retrieved 26 Mar 2016, from https://www.basw.co.uk/resource/?id=1706
  8. Bearss, K., Johnson, C., Smith, T., Lecavalier, L., Swiezy, N., Aman, M., … Scahill, L.. (2015). Effect of parent training vs parent education on behavioral problems in children with autism spectrum disorder A randomized clinical trial. Journal of American Medical Association, 313(15), 1524–1533. doi: 10.1001/jama.2015.3150.
  9. BPS. (2015). Code of ethics and conduct. British Psychological Society. Retrieved 27 Feb 2015, from http://www.bps.org.uk/
  10. Brackett, L., Reid, D. H., & Green, C. W. (2007). Effects of reactivity to observations on staff performance. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 40(1), 191–195. doi: 10.1901/jaba.2007.112-05.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  11. Brown, K. M., Willis, B. S., & Reid, D. H. (1981). Differential effects of supervisor verbal feedback and feedback plus approval on institutional staff performance. Journal of Organizational Behavior Management, 3(1), 57–68. doi: 10.1300/J075v03n01_05.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Catania, C. N., Almeida, D., Liu-Constant, B., & DiGennaro Reed, F. D. (2009). Video modeling to train staff to implement discrete-trial instruction. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 42(2), 387–392. doi: 10.1901/jaba.2009.42-387.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  13. Clarke, S., Taylor, G., Lancaster, J., & Remington, B. (2015). Acceptance and commitment therapy–based self-management versus psychoeducation training for staff caring for clients with a personality disorder: A randomized controlled trial. Journal of Personality Disorders, 29(2), 163–176. doi: 10.1521/pedi_2014_28_149.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Courtemanche, A., Sheldon, J., Sherman, J., Schroeder, S., Bell, A., & House, R. (2014). Assessing the effects of a staff training package on the treatment integrity of an intervention for self-injurious behavior. Journal of Developmental and Physical Disabilities, 26(4), 371–389. doi: 10.1007/s10882-014-9372-6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Cullen, C. (1988). A review of staff training: The emperor’s old clothes. Irish Journal of Psychology, 9(2), 309., 1988, Ireland. doi: 10.1080/03033910.1988.10557723.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Cumine, V., Dunlop, J., & Stevenson, G. (2009). Autism in the early years: A practical guide. Abington, UK: Routledge.Google Scholar
  17. Delamater, A. M., Conners, C. K., Wells, K. C., Delamater, A. M., Conners, C. K., & Wells, K. C. (1984). A comparison of staff training procedures. Behavioral applications in the child psychiatric inpatient setting. Behavior Modification, 8(1), 39–58. doi: 10.1177/01454455840081003.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Denne, L. D., Thomas, E., Hastings, R. P., & Hughes, J. C. (2015). Assessing competencies in applied behavior analysis for tutors working with children with autism in a school-based setting. Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders, 20, 67–77. doi: 10.1016/j.rasd.2015.08.008.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Diener, L. H., McGee, H. M., & Miguel, C. F. (2009). An integrated approach for conducting a behavioral systems analysis. Journal of Organizational Behavior Management, 29(2), 108–135. doi: 10.1080/01608060902874534.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Dillenburger, K. (2011). The emperor’s new clothes: Eclecticism in autism treatment. Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders, 5(3), 1119–1128. doi: 10.1016/j.rasd.2010.12.008.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Dillenburger, K., Keenan, M., Gallagher, S., & McElhinney, M. (2004). Parent education and home-based behaviour analytic intervention: An examination of parents’ perceptions of outcome. Journal of Intellectual & Developmental Disability, 29(2), 119–130. doi: 10.1080/13668250410001709476.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Dillenburger, K., Keenan, M., Doherty, A., Byrne, T., & Gallagher, S. (2012). ABA-based programs for children diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder: Parental and professional experiences at school and at home. Child and Family Behavior Therapy, 34(November), 111–129. doi: 10.1080/07317107.2012.684645.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Dillenburger, K., McKerr, L., & Jordan, J.-A. (2014a). Lost in translation: Public policies, evidence-based practice, and autism spectrum disorder. International Journal of Disability, Development and Education, 61(2), 134–151. doi: 10.1080/1034912X.2014.905059.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Dillenburger, K., Röttgers, H.-R., Dounavi, K., Sparkman, C., Keenan, M., Thyer, B., & Nikopoulos, C. (2014b). Multidisciplinary teamwork in autism: Can one size fit all? The Australian Educational and Developmental Psychologist, 30, 1–16. doi: 10.1017/edp.2014.13.Google Scholar
  25. Dillenburger, K., McKerr, L., & Jordan, J.-A. (2016). Staff training in autism: The one-eyed man…. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, under review.Google Scholar
  26. Ducharme, J. M., & Feldman, M. A. (1992). Comparison of staff training strategies to promote generalized teaching skills. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 25(1), 165–179. doi: 10.1901/jaba.1992.25-165.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  27. Ducharme, J. M., Williams, L., Cummings, A., Murray, P., & Spencer, T. (2001). General case quasi-pyramidal staff training to promote generalization of teaching skills in supervisory and direct-care staff. Behavior Modification, 25(2), 233–254. doi: 10.1177/0145445501252004.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Durgin, A., Mahoney, A., Cox, C., Weetjens, B. J., & Poling, A. (2014). Using task clarification and feedback training to improve staff performance in an East African nongovernmental organization. Journal of Organizational Behavior Management, 34(2), 122–143. doi: 10.1080/01608061.2014.914007.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Embregts, P. J. C. M. (2002). Effect of resident and direct-care staff training on responding during social interactions. Research in Developmental Disabilities, 23(5), 353–366. doi: 10.1016/S0891-4222(02)00134-8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Fennell, B., & Dillenburger, K. (2016). Applied behaviour analysis: What do teachers of students with autism spectrum disorder know. International Journal of Educational Research, under review.Google Scholar
  31. Fleming, R., & Sulzer-Azaroff, B. (1992). Reciprocal peer management: Improving staff instruction in a vocational training program. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 25(3), 611–620. doi: 10.1901/jaba.1992.25-611.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  32. Fleming, R. K., Oliver, J. R., & Bolton, D. M. (1996). Training supervisors to train staff. Journal of Organizational Behavior Management, 16, 3–25. doi: 10.1300/J075v16n01_02.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Gardner, M. (1957). Fads and fallacies in the name of science. Mineola, NY: Dover Publications.Google Scholar
  34. Green, J., Charman, T., McConachie, H., Aldred, C., Slonims, V., Howlin, P., … Pickles, A.. (2010). Parent-mediated communication-focused treatment in children with autism (PACT): A randomised controlled trial. Lancet, 375(9732), 2152–2160. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(10)60587-9.
  35. Hawkins, A. M., Burgio, L. D., Langford, A., & Engel, B. T. (1993). The effects of verbal and written supervisory feedback on staff compliance with assigned prompted voiding in a nursing home. Journal of Organizational Behavior Management, 13(1), 137–150. doi: 10.1300/J075v13n01_09.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Hay-Hansson, A. W., & Eldevik, S. (2013). Training discrete trials teaching skills using videoconference. Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders, 7(11), 1300–1309. doi: 10.1016/j.rasd.2013.07.022.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Howard, J. S., Sparkman, C. R., Cohen, H. G., Green, G., & Stanislaw, H. (2005). A comparison of intensive behavior analytic and eclectic treatments for young children with autism. Research in Developmental Disabilities, 26(4), 359–383. doi: 10.1016/j.ridd.2004.09.005.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. Howard, J. S., Stanislaw, H., Green, G., Sparkman, C. R., & Cohen, H. G. (2014). Comparison of behavior analytic and eclectic early interventions for young children with autism after three years. Research in Developmental Disabilities, 35(12), 3326–3344. doi: 10.1016/j.ridd.2014.08.021.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. Huskens, B., & Verburg, M. (2011). An applied behavior analysis training package in a child psychiatric clinic: A chance to empower staff and parents? European Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. Retrieved from http://ovidsp.ovid.com/ovidweb.cgi?T=JS&PAGE=reference&D=emed10&NEWS=N&AN=70489227
  40. Huskens, B., Reijers, H., & Didden, R. (2012). Staff training effective in increasing learning opportunities for school-aged children with autism spectrum disorders. Developmental Neurorehabilitation, 15(6), 435–447. doi: 10.3109/17518423.2012.705910.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. Jahr, E. (1998). Current issues in staff training. Research in Developmental Disabilities, 19(1), 73–87. doi: 10.1016/S0891-4222(97)00030-9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. Jerome, J., Kaplan, H., & Sturmey, P. (2014). The effects of in-service training alone and in-service training with feedback on data collection accuracy for direct-care staff working with individuals with intellectual disabilities. Research in Developmental Disabilities, 35(2), 529–536. doi: 10.1016/j.ridd.2013.11.009.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. Kazemi, E., Shapiro, M., & Kavner, A. (2015). Predictors of intention to turnover in behavior technicians working with individuals with autism spectrum disorder. Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders, 17, 106–115. doi: 10.1016/j.rasd.2015.06.012.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. King, R. P., Lange, M. J., & Errickson, E. A. (1982). Public posting and individualized feedback: An effective procedure to improve direct care staff performances. Behavioral Engineering, 8(1), 25–33. Retrieved from http://ovidsp.ovid.com/ovidweb.cgi?T=JS&PAGE=reference&D=psyc2&NEWS=N&AN=1983-21927-001.Google Scholar
  45. Lavie, T., & Sturmey, P. (2002). Training staff to conduct a paired-stimulus preference assessment. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 35(2), 209–211. doi: 10.1901/jaba.2002.35-209.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  46. Leblanc, M., Ricciardi, J. N., & Luiselli, J. K. (2005). Improving discrete trial instruction by paraprofessional staff through an abbreviated performance feedback intervention. Education and Treatment of Children, 28(1), 76–82.Google Scholar
  47. Ling, C. Y. M., & Mak, W. W. S. (2012). Coping with challenging behaviours of children with autism: Effectiveness of brief training workshop for frontline staff in special education settings. Journal of Intellectual Disability Research, 56(3), 258–269. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2788.2011.01469.x.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. Luiselli, J. K., Bass, J. D., & Whitcomb, S. A. (2010). Teaching applied behavior analysis knowledge competencies to direct-care service providers: Outcome assessment and social validation of a training program. Behavior Modification, 34(5), 403–414. doi: 10.1177/0145445510383526.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. Macurik, K. M., O’Kane, N. P., Malanga, P., & Reid, D. H. (2008). Video training of support staff in intervention plans for challenging behavior: Comparison with live training. Behavioral Interventions, 23(3), 143–163. doi: 10.1002/bin.261.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Malott, R. W., Vunovich, P. L., Boettcher, W., & Groeger, C. (1995). Saving the world by teaching behavior analysis: A behavioral systems approach. The Behavior Analyst/MABA, 18(2), 341–354. Retrieved from http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?artid=2733719&tool=pmcentrez&rendertype=abstract.
  51. McDonnell, A., Sturmey, P., Oliver, C., Cunningham, J., Hayes, S., Galvin, M., … Cunningham, C. (2008). The effects of staff training on staff confidence and challenging behavior in services for people with autism spectrum disorders. Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders, 2(2), 311–319. doi: 10.1016/j.rasd.2007.08.001.
  52. Milton, D. E. M. (2012). The normalisation agenda and the psycho-emotional disablement of autistic people. Autonomy, the Critical Journal of Interdisciplinary Autism Studies, 1(1), 1.Google Scholar
  53. NcCahill, J., Healy, O., & Ramey, S. (2014). Training educational staff in functional behavioral assessment: A systematic review. Journal of Developmental and Physical Disabilities, 26(4), 479–505. Retrieved from http://www.tara.tcd.ie/handle/2262/73401.
  54. Nepo, K. G. (2010). The use of technology to improve staff performance. International Journal of Behavioral Consultation & Therapy, 6(2), 134–141. doi: 10.1037/h0100901.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Nigro-Bruzzi, D., & Sturmey, P. (2010). The effects of behavioral skills training on mand training by staff and unprompted vocal mands by children. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 43(4), 757–761. doi: 10.1901/jaba.2010.43-757.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  56. Nosik, M. R., Williams, W. L., Garrido, N., & Lee, S. (2013). Comparison of computer based instruction to behavior skills training for teaching staff implementation of discrete-trial instruction with an adult with autism. Research in Developmental Disabilities, 34(1), 461–468. doi: 10.1016/j.ridd.2012.08.011.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. van Oorsouw, W. M. W. J., Embregts, P. J. C. M., Bosman, A. M. T., & Jahoda, A. (2009). Training staff serving clients with intellectual disabilities: A meta-analysis of aspects determining effectiveness. Research in Developmental Disabilities, 30(3), 503–511. doi: 10.1016/j.ridd.2008.07.011.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. Page, T. J., Iwata, B. A., & Reid, D. H. (1982). Pyramidal training: A large-scale application with institutional staff. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 15(3), 335–351. doi: 10.1901/jaba.1982.15-335.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  59. Palmen, A., Didden, R., & Korzilius, H. (2010). Effectiveness of behavioral skills training on staff performance in a job training setting for high-functioning adolescents with autism spectrum disorders. Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders, 4(4), 731–740. doi: 10.1016/j.rasd.2010.01.012.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Parsons, M. B., Reid, D. H., & Green, C. W. (1996). Training basic teaching skills to community and institutional support staff for people with severe disabilities: A one-day program. Research in Developmental Disabilities, 17(6), 467–485. doi: 10.1016/S0891-4222(96)00031-5.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. Parsons, M. B., Rollyson, J. H., & Reid, D. H. (2012). Evidence-based staff training: A guide for practitioners. Behavior Analysis in Practice, 5(2), 2–11.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  62. PBS Coalition UK (2015). Positive Behavioural Support: A competence framework. Positive Behavioural Support (PBS) Coalition UK. Retrieved 26 Mar 2016, from http://www.skillsforcare.org.uk/Document-library/Skills/People-whose-behaviour-challenges/Positive-Behavioural-Support-Competence-Framework.pdf
  63. Perry, A., & Condillac, R. (2003). Evidence-based practices for children and adolescents with autism Spectrum disorders: Review of the literature and practice guide. Toronto, ON: Children’s Mental Health.Google Scholar
  64. Petscher, E. S., & Bailey, J. S. (2006). Effects of training, prompting, and self-monitoring on staff behavior in a classroom for students with disabilities. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 39(2), 215–226. doi: 10.1901/jaba.2006.02-05.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  65. van den Pol, R. A., Reid, D. H., & Fuqua, R. W. (1983). Peer training of safety-related skills to institutional staff: Benefits for trainers and trainees. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 16(2), 139–156. doi: 10.1901/jaba.1983.16-139.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Reid, D. H., & Parsons, M. B. (1995). Comparing choice and questionnaire measures of the acceptability of a staff training procedure. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 28(1), 95–96. doi: 10.1901/jaba.1995.28-95.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  67. Reid, D.H., O’Kane, N.P., Macurik, K.M. (2011). Staff training and management. Handbook of Applied Behavior Analysis, 281–294.Google Scholar
  68. Roscoe, E. M., & Fisher, W. W. (2008). Evaluation of an efficient method for training staff to implement stimulus preference assessments. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 41(2), 249–254. doi: 10.1901/jaba.2008.41-249.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  69. Roscoe, E. M., Fisher, W. W., Glover, A. C., & Volkert, V. M. (2006). Evaluating the relative effects of feedback and contingent money for staff training of stimulus preference assessments. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 39(1), 63–77. doi: 10.1901/jaba.2006.7-05.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  70. Sarokoff, R., & Sturmey, P. (2004). The effects of behavioral skills training on staff implementation of discrete-trial teaching. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 37(4), 535–538. doi: 10.1901/jaba.2004.37-535.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  71. Sarokoff, R. A., & Sturmey, P. (2008). The effects of instructions, rehearsal, modeling, and feedback on acquisition and generalization of staff use of discrete trial teaching and student correct responses. Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders, 2(1), 125–136. doi: 10.1016/j.rasd.2007.04.002.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Schepis, M. M., Reid, D. H., Ownbey, J., & Parsons, M. B. (2001). Training support staff to embed teaching within natural routines of young children with disabilities in an inclusive preschool. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 34(3), 313–327. doi: 10.1901/jaba.2001.34-313.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  73. Schmidt, J. D., Urban, K. D., Luiselli, J. K., White, C., & Harrington, C. (2013). Improving appearance, organization, and safety of special education classrooms: Effects of staff training in a human services setting. Education and Treatment of Children, 36(2), 1–13. doi: 10.1353/etc.2013.0012.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Sellers, T. P., Valentino, A. L., & LeBlanc, L. A. (2016). Recommended practices for individual supervision of aspiring behavior analysts. Behavior Analysis in Practice. doi: 10.1007/s40617-016-0110-7.
  75. Singh, N. N., Lancioni, G. E., Karazsia, B. T., Myers, R. E., Winton, A. S. W., Latham, L. L., & Nugent, K. (2015). Effects of training staff in MBPBS on the use of physical restraints, staff stress and turnover, staff and peer injuries, and cost effectiveness in developmental disabilities. Mindfulness, 6(4), 926–937. doi: 10.1007/s12671-014-0369-0.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Spector, A., Orrell, M., & Goyder, J. (2013). A systematic review of staff training interventions to reduce the behavioural and psychological symptoms of dementia. Ageing Research Reviews. doi: 10.1016/j.arr.2012.06.005.
  77. Stanton, M. (2000). Learning to live with high functioning autism: A parent’s guide for professionals. London, UK: Jessica Kingsley Publishers.Google Scholar
  78. Strouse, M. C., Carroll-Hernandez, T. A., Sherman, J. A., & Sheldon, J. B. (2004). Turning over turnover: The evaluation of a staff scheduling system in a community-based program for adults with developmental disabilities. Journal of Organizational Behavior Management, 23(2–3), 45–63. doi: 10.1300/J075v23n02.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Sundberg, D. (2016). Why people quit your company and how behavior analysis can slow the revolving door at aba service providers. Behavioral Science in the 21 Century. Retrieved 17 Apr 2016, from bSc21.org
  80. Tavis, C. (2003). The widening scientist-practitioner gap: A view from the bridge. In S. O. Lilienfeld, S. J. Lynn, & J. Lohr (Eds.), Science and pseudoscience in clinical psychology (pp. ix–xviii). New York, NY: The Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  81. Taylor, D. (2007). Death by PowerPoint. Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology, 49(5), 395.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. Test, D. W., Flowers, C., Hewitt, A., & Solow, J. (2004). Training needs of direct support staff. Mental Retardation, 42(5), 327–337. doi: 10.1352/0047-6765(2004)42<327:TNODSS>2.0.CO;2.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. Unumb, L.. (2014). BCBS must provide ABA coverage for autism. Letter to the Editor. Newsobserver.com. Retrieved Jul 17 2014, from http://www.newsobserver.com/2014/07/17/4012585/lorri-unumb-bcbs-must-provide.html
  84. van Vonderen, A., de Swart, C., & Didden, R. (2010). Effectiveness of instruction and video feedback on staff’s use of prompts and children’s adaptive responses during one-to-one training in children with severe to profound intellectual disability. Research in Developmental Disabilities, 31(3), 829–838. doi: 10.1016/j.ridd.2010.02.008.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. Williams, W. L., & Gallinat, J. (2011). The effects of evaluating video examples of staffs’ own versus others’ performance on discrete-trial training skills in a human service setting. Journal of Organizational Behavior Management, 31(2), 97–116. doi: 10.1080/01608061.2011.570099.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Wilson, P. G., Reid, D. H., & Korabek-Pinkowski, C. A. (1991). Analysis of public verbal feedback as a staff management procedure. Behavioral Interventions, 6(4), 263–277. doi: 10.1002/bin.2360060404.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Centre for Behaviour AnalysisQueens University BelfastBelfastUK

Personalised recommendations