Gelfond-Zhang Aggregates as Propositional Formulas
We show that any ASP aggregate interpreted under Gelfond and Zhang’s (GZ) semantics can be replaced (under strong equivalence) by a propositional formula. Restricted to the original GZ syntax, the resulting formula is reducible to a disjunction of conjunctions of literals but the formulation is still applicable even when the syntax is extended to allow for arbitrary formulas (including nested aggregates) in the condition. Once GZ-aggregates are represented as formulas, we establish a formal comparison (in terms of the logic of Here-and-There) to Ferraris’ (F) aggregates, which are defined by a different formula translation involving nested implications. In particular, we prove that if we replace an F-aggregate by a GZ-aggregate in a rule head, we do not lose answer sets (although more can be gained). This extends the previously known result that the opposite happens in rule bodies, i.e., replacing a GZ-aggregate by an F-aggregate in the body may yield more answer sets. Finally, we characterise a class of aggregates for which GZ- and F-semantics coincide.
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