Anal squamous intraepithelial lesions (ASILs) are part of the multicentric infection of the lower genital tract by the human papillomavirus (HPV). The rate of anal cancer during 2004–2008 in the United States among females was 1.8 per 100,000 and 1.2 per 100,000 among males.
Women with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection have a higher risk compared to the general population. Early diagnosis may be prompted by a high index of suspicion, obtaining anal cytology, and performing high-resolution anoscopy (HRA) and a biopsy for those who have high risk factors. Treatments include application of trichloroacetic acid, imiquimod 5%, infrared coagulation, CO2 laser vaporization, and surgery. HPV vaccines have a high success rate in preventing ASIL caused by HPV.
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