Vulvar Disease pp 239-247 | Cite as

White Patches and Plaques: Lichen Sclerosus, Vitiligo, Postinflammatory Hypopigmentation and Lichenified Diseases

  • Gayle FischerEmail author


Lichen sclerosus (LS) is an uncommon skin disease that has a predilection for the genital skin. It is an important condition of the vulva with a reported prevalence between 1 in 300 and 1 in 1000 women and 1 in 900 girls.


  1. 1.
    Smith S, Fischer G. Childhood onset vulvar lichen sclerosus does not resolve at puberty: a prospective case series. Pediatr Dermatol. 2009;26(6):725–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Powell J, Wojnarowska F. Childhood vulvar lichen sclerosus. The course after puberty. J Reprod Med. 2002;47(9):706–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Ellis E, Fischer G. Prepubertal-onset vulvar lichen sclerosus: the importance of maintenance therapy in long-term outcomes. Paediatr Dermatol. 2015;32(4):461–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Lee A, Bradford J, Fischer G. Long-term management of adult vulvar lichen sclerosus: a prospective cohort study of 507 women. JAMA Dermatol. 2015;151(10):1061–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    La Spina M, Meli MC, De Pasquale R, et al. Vulvar melanoma associated with lichen sclerosus in a child: case report and literature review. Pediatr Dermatol. 2016;33(3):e190–4.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Dalziel KL, Millard PR, Wojnarowska F. The treatment of vulval lichen sclerosus with a very potent topical steroid (clobetasol propionate .05%) cream. Br J Dermatol. 1991;121(5):461–4.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Virgili A, Borghi A, Minghetti S, Corazza M. Mometasone furoate 0.1% ointment in the treatment of vulvar lichen sclerosus: a study of efficacy and safety on a large cohort of patients. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol. 2014;28(7):943–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Garzon MC, Paller AS. Ultrapotent topical corticosteroid treatment of childhood genital lichen sclerosus. Arch Dermatol. 1999;135(5):525–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Dalziel KL, Wojnarowska F. Long-term control of vulval lichen sclerosus after treatment with a potent topical steroid cream. J Reprod Med. 1993;38(1):25–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Fischer G, Bradford J. Topical immunosuppressants, genital lichen sclerosus and the risk of squamous cell carcinoma: a case report. J Reprod Med. 2007;52(4):329–31.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Broeders J, Ali U, Fischer G. Systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized clinical trials (RCTs) comparing topical calcineurin inhibitors with topical corticosteroids for atopic dermatitis: a 15-year experience. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2016; Scholar
  12. 12.
    Dixit S, Scurry J, Fischer G. A vesicular variant of pseudoverrucous papules and nodules in the genital area of an incontinent 4-year-old. Australas J Dermatol. 2013;54(4):e92–4.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Dermatology, Sydney Medical School NorthernThe University of SydneySydneyAustralia

Personalised recommendations