A urethral caruncle is a benign lesion of the distal urethra. Urethral prolapse occurs when the urethral mucosa is everted circumferentially all the way around the urethral meatus. In contrast, with a urethral caruncle, there is only partial eversion of the distal urethra. Often the terms urethral prolapse and urethral caruncle are incorrectly used interchangeably. Caruncles occur most commonly in low estrogen states and are treated with topical estrogen if they are causing symptoms.