The Normal Vulva and Vagina

  • Bina Cohen Sacher


The appearance of the female external genitalia is key for understanding and diagnosing many diseases that women of all ages encounter. Alas, the normal appearance of the vulva and its diversity is not always presented both to patients and to caregivers. This chapter reviews vulvar and vaginal embryology, its anatomy, the changes in the female external genitalia throughout the woman’s life cycle, and literature discussing vulvar measurements.





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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Bina Cohen Sacher
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Obstetrics and GynecologyHelen Schneider Hospital for Women, Rabin Medical CenterPetach TikvaIsrael

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