Vulvar Cosmetics

  • Claudia Marchitelli


Over the past decade, there has been an increase in cosmetic vulvovaginal surgery. It was augmented by publicity and media coverage. This chapter discusses vulvar cosmetics: the need for standardization of the indications. It also raises the question of whether or not these practices increase sexual pleasure. In particular, we elaborate on labia minora reduction surgery, labia majora labiaplasty, reduction vaginoplasty, G-spot amplification, vulvar and anal bleaching, and fractionated laser.


  1. 1.
    American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. Vaginal rejuvenation and cosmetic vaginal procedures. ACOG Committee Opinion. Obstet Gynecol. 2007;110:737–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Bramwell R, et al. Expectations and experience of labial reduction: a qualitative study. BJOG. 2007;114:1493–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Renganathan A. Gynecological cosmetic surgery. Expert Rev Obstet Gynecol. 2009;4(2):101–4.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Likes WM, et al. Aesthetic practice of labial reduction. J Lower Genital Tract Dis. 2008;12(3):210–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Alter GJ. A new technique for aesthetic labia minora reduction. Ann Plast Surg. 1998;40(3):287–90.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Rouzier R, Louis-Sylvestre C, Paniel B, Haddad B. Hypertrophy of labia minora: experience with 163 reductions. Am J Obst Gynecol. 2000;182:35–40.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Giraldo F, González C, de Haro F. Central wedge nymphectomy with a 90-degree Z plasty for aesthetic reduction of the labia minora. Plast Reconst Surg. 2004;113(6):1820–5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Marchitelli CE, Sluga MC, Perrotta M, Testa R. Initial experience in a vulvovaginal aesthetic surgery unit within a general gynecology department. J Lower Genit Tract Dis. 2010;14(4):295–300.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Portman DJ, Gass ML, Vulvovaginal Atrophy Terminology Consensus Conference Panel. Genitourinary syndrome of menopause: new terminology for vulvovaginal atrophy from the International Society for the Study of Women’s Sexual Health and the North American Menopause Society. Menopause. 2014;21(10):1063–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    North American Menopause Society. Management of symptomatic vulvovaginal atrophy: 2013 position statement of The North American Menopause Society. Menopause. 2013;20(9):888–902. quiz 903–904.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Salvatore S, Leone Roberti Maggiore U, Athanasiou S, Origoni M, Candiani M, Calligaro A, Zerbinati N. Histological study on the effects of microablative fractional CO2 laser on atrophic vaginal tissue: an ex vivo study. Menopause. 2015;22(8):845–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Arunkalaivanan A, Kaur H, Onuma O. Laser therapy as a treatment modality for genitourinary syndrome of menopause: a critical appraisal of evidence. Int Urogynecol J. 2017;28(5):681–5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Claudia Marchitelli
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
  1. 1.Unit of Vulvar DiseasesHospital Italiano de Buenos AiresBuenos AiresArgentina
  2. 2.School of Medicine, Instituto UniversitarioHospital Italiano of Buenos AiresBuenos AiresArgentina
  3. 3.ISSVD (International Society for the Study of Vulvovaginal Diseases)WaxhawUSA

Personalised recommendations