Etiology: Etiological and Pathogenic Theories of Interstitial Cystitis/Bladder Pain Syndrome



When this chapter was first written in 1990, Interstitial Cystitis (IC) had no established universally accepted definition and no widely agreed upon diagnostic criteria. Consequently, patients receiving the clinical diagnosis constituted a wide range of different phenotypes of urinary frequency, urgency or pain—a diagnosis established primarily based on symptoms—depending on the diagnostic criteria created by the individual doctor making the diagnosis.


  1. 1.
    Abrams P, Cardozo L, Fall M, Griffiths D, Rosier P, Ulmsten U, van Kerrebroeck P, Victor A, Wein A. The standardization of terminology of lower urinary tract function. Neurourol Urodyn. 2002;21(2):167–78.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Homma Y, Ueda T, Ito T, Takei M, Tomoe H. Japanese guideline for diagnosis and treatment of interstitial cystitis. Int J Urol. 2009;16(1):4–16.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    van de Merwe JP, Nordling J, Bouchelouche P, Bouchelouche K, Cervigni M, Daha LK, et al. Diagnostic criteria, classification, and nomenclature for painful bladder syndrome/interstitial cystitis: an ESSIC proposal. Eur Urol. 2008;53(1):60–7.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Fall M, Logadottir Y, Peeker R. Interstitial cystitis is bladder pain syndrome with Hunner's lesion. Int J Urol. 2014;21(Suppl 1):79–82.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Alagiri M, Chottiner S, Ratner V, Slade D, Hanno PM. Interstitial cystitis: unexplained associations with other chronic disease and pain syndromes. Urology. 1997;49(5A Suppl):52–7.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Aaron LA, Buchwald D. A review of the evidence for overlap among unexplained clinical conditions. Ann Intern Med. 2001;134(9 Pt 2):868–81.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Clauw DJ. The pathogenesis of chronic pain and fatigue syndromes, with special reference to fibromyalgia. Med Hypotheses. 1995;44(5):369–78.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Sand PK. Proposed pathogenesis of painful bladder syndrome/interstitial cystitis. J Reprod Med. 2006;51(3 Suppl):234–40.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Fall M, Johansson SL, Aldenborg F. Chronic interstitial cystitis: a heterogeneous syndrome. J Urol. 1987;137(1):35–8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jørgen Nordling
    • 1
  • David Staskin
    • 1
  • Naoki Yoshimura
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of UrologyHerlev HospitalHerlevDenmark

Personalised recommendations