Advertisement

How the Gulf Cooperation Council Responded to the Arab Spring

  • Gülşah Neslihan Akkaya
Chapter

Abstract

The uprising that erupted at the end of 2010 and spread to most of the Arab countries did not bring spring to the Middle East and North Africa region, as it was hoped at the beginning. International, regional, and local powers have all been tested in their sincerity of supporting the will of the people, their social and political demands and choices vis-à-vis their own national and global interests. After eight years, there is no actor or institution that is able to bring spring to the region; however, history records all the efforts or sets put up by all the actors. Despite the fact that its reputation falls behind some of its members and also that it suffers from internal crisis, the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) as a subregional intergovernmental organization started to play more and more of a significant role diplomatically and economically in the region, especially after the Arab Spring. Nevertheless, in view of the challenges posed by regional unrest and the history of the organization, it is unlikely the organization will play a more active role. This study attempts to make a critical assessment of the GCC’s performance as a subregional organization during the regional turmoil and afterwards.

References

  1. Abdulqader, K. S. (2014). GCC’s Economic Cooperation and Integration: Achievements and Hurdles. In Gulf Cooperation Council’s Challenges and Prospects (pp. 34–46). Al Jazeera Centre for Studies.Google Scholar
  2. Al Baik, D., & Salama, S. (2011, March 8). GCC Calls for UN Action on Libya. Gulf News. Retrieved from http://gulfnews.com/news/mena/libya/gcc-calls-for-un-action-on-libya-1.773101
  3. Al Hassan, O. (2014). The GCC’s Formation: The Official Version. In Gulf Cooperation Council’s Challenges and Prospects (pp. 9–21). Al Jazeera Centre for Studies.Google Scholar
  4. Al Qassemi, S. (2013, July 10). Gulf States Embrace Post-Brotherhood Egypt. Al Monitor. Retrieved from https://www.al-monitor.com/pulse/originals/2013/07/gulf-states-egypt-muslim-brotherhood.html
  5. Al Zayani, A. R. (2012). A Window onto the Gulf Cooperation Council. The Gulf Research Center’s Third Annual Gulf Research Meeting, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK.Google Scholar
  6. Al-Rashid, A. (2013, February 14). The Brothers and the Emirates. The Majalla. Retrieved from http://eng.majalla.com/2013/02/article55238281/the-brothers-and-the-emirates
  7. Bahrain ‘Asks for Gulf Help. (2011, March 14). Al Jazeera. Retrieved from https://www.aljazeera.com/indepth/spotlight/bahrain/2011/03/201131454020610721.html
  8. Batty, D., & Shenker, J. (2011, November 11). Syria Suspended from Arab League. The Guardian. Retrieved from https://www.theguardian.com/world/2011/nov/12/syria-suspended-arab-league
  9. Boughanmi, H., Al-Shammakhi, A., & Antimiani, A. (2016). Deeper Integration or Wider Integration?: The Case of Gulf Cooperation Council. Journal of Economic Integration, 31(2), 206–233.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Cafiero, G. (2015, December 11). How the Gulf Arab Rivalry Tore Libya Apart. The National Interest. Retrieved from http://nationalinterest.org/feature/how-the-gulf-arab-rivalry-tore-libya-apart-14580
  11. Cassel, M. (2011, November 17). The Not-So-Revolutionary Arab League: Flexing GCC Muscle. Al Akhbar. Retrieved from http://english.al-akhbar.com/node/1664
  12. Charter of the Gulf Cooperation Council, 25 May 1981. Retrieved from http://www.gcc-sg.org/en-us/AboutGCC/Pages/Primarylaw.aspx
  13. Colombo, S. (2012). The GCC and the Arab Spring: A Tale of Double Standards. The International Spectator, 47(4), 110–126.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Fattah, K. (2014, April 8). The Repercussions of the GCC Tension in Yemen. Carnegie Endowment. Retrieved from http://carnegieendowment.org/sada/55276
  15. Freer, C. (2015a, August). The Rise of Pragmatic Islamism in Kuwait’s PostArab Spring Opposition Movement. Brookings. Retrieved from https://www.brookings.edu/wp-content/uploads/2016/07/Kuwait_Freer-FINALE.pdf
  16. Freer, C. (2015b, December 17). The Muslim Brotherhood in the Emirates: Anatomy of a Crackdown. Middle East Eye. Retrieved from http://www.middleeasteye.net/essays/muslim-brotherhood-emirates-anatomy-crackdown-1009823835
  17. GCC Foreign Ministers Statement on the Situation in Yemen, Royal Embassy of Saudi Arabia, Washington. (2015, January 21). Retrieved from https://www.saudiembassy.net/statements/gcc-foreign-ministers-statement-situation-yemen
  18. GCC Statement: Gulf Countries Response to Letter from Yemen President. (2015, March, 26). The National. Retrieved from https://www.thenational.ae/uae/gcc-statement-gulf-countries-response-to-letter-from-yemen-president-1.4831
  19. GCC Troops Dispatched to Bahrain to Maintain Order. (2011, March 15). Al Arabiya. Retrieved from https://www.alarabiya.net/articles/2011/03/14/141445.html
  20. Gulf Arab States Close Syria Embassies: GCC. (2012, March 16). Reuters. Retrieved from https://www.reuters.com/article/us-syria-gcc/gulf-arab-states-close-syria-embassies-gcc-idUSBRE82F08V20120316
  21. Gulf States Launch $20 Billion Fund for Oman and Bahrain. (2011, March 10). Reuters. Retrieved from https://www.reuters.com/article/us-gulf-fund/gulf-states-launch-20-billion-fund-for-oman-and-bahrain-idUSTRE7294B120110310
  22. Gulf States Must Tackle Muslim Brotherhood Threat: UAE. (2012, October 8). Reuters. Retrieved from https://www.reuters.com/article/us-emirates-brotherhood/gulf-states-must-tackle-muslim-brotherhood-threat-uae-idUSBRE8970SD20121008
  23. Hatlani, İ. (2014, May 20). Bahrain Between Its Backers and the Brotherhood. Carnegie Endowment. Retrieved from http://carnegieendowment.org/sada/55653
  24. Koch, C. (2010). The GCC as a Regional Security Organization. KAS International Reports, 11, 23–35.Google Scholar
  25. Kuffel, Glenn P., Jr. (2000). The Gulf Cooperation Council’s Peninsular Shield Force. Unpublished Paper, Nawal War College, Newport, RI. Retrieved from https://www.hsdl.org/?view&did=445570
  26. Leaked UAE Emails: Saudi Arabia Came Close to ‘Conquering’ Qatar. (2017, September 17). Middle East Eye. Retrieved from http://www.middleeasteye.net/news/saudi-arabia-came-close-conquering-qatar-new-leaked-emails-show-1491607860
  27. Martini, J., Wasser, B., Kaye, D. D., Egel, D., & Ogletree, C. (2016). The Outlook for Arab Gulf Cooperation, Rand Corporation. Santa Monica, CA: RAND Corporation https://www.rand.org/pubs/research_reports/RR1429.htmlCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Muslim Brotherhood Cited in Oman Plot. (1994, August 30). UPI. Retrieved from http://www.upi.com/Archives/1994/08/30/Muslim-Brotherhood-cited-in-Oman-plot/6767778219200/
  29. Nafi, B. (2017, July 18). The Final Nail in the Coffin of the Arab Order. Middle East Eye. Retrieved from http://www.middleeasteye.net/columns/last-nail-coffin-arab-regional-system-201027301
  30. Peel, M. (2013, July 4). Gulf Countries Split on Morsi’s Removal. Financial Times. Retrieved from https://www.ft.com/content/30a1355e-e47c-11e2-875b-00144feabdc0
  31. Phillips, C. (2015). Gulf Actors and the Syria Crisis. In The New Politics of Intervention of Gulf Arab States (pp. 41–51). LSE Middle East CentreGoogle Scholar
  32. Qatar: Decision to Cut Ties Violates Our Sovereignty. (2017, June 6). Al Jazeera. Retrieved from https://www.aljazeera.com/news/2017/06/qatar-decision-cut-ties-violates-sovereignty-170605213912421.html
  33. Roberts, D.B. (2015). Qatar’s Strained Gulf Relationships. In The New Politics of Intervention of Gulf Arab States (pp. 23–40). LSE Middle East Centre.Google Scholar
  34. Salama, S. (2012, October 8). Shaikh Abdullah Slams Muslim Brotherhood. Gulf News. Retrieved from http://gulfnews.com/news/uae/government/shaikh-abdullah-slams-muslim-brotherhood-1.1086809
  35. Saudi Arabia, UAE, Egypt, Bahrain Cut Ties to Qatar. (2017, June 5). Al Jazeera. Retrieved from http://www.aljazeera.com/news/2017/06/saudi-arabia-uae-egypt-bahrain-cut-ties-qatar-170605031700062.html
  36. Saudi King Congratulates Egypt’s New Interim President. (2013, July 4). Al Arabiya. Retrieved from http://english.alarabiya.net/en/News/middle-east/2013/07/04/Saudi-king-congratulates-Egypt-new-interim-president.html
  37. Trump Claims He Can Mediate ‘Quick Deal’ to End Gulf Crisis. (2017, September 7). Middle East Eye. Retrieved from http://www.middleeasteye.net/news/trump-kuwait-emir-sabah-highlight-qatar-dispute-assad-and-palestine-1848079796
  38. UAE, Saudi Arabia and Bahrain Recall Their Ambassadors from Qatar. (2014, March 5). Gulf News. Retrieved from http://gulfnews.com/news/uae/government/uae-saudi-arabia-and-bahrain-recall-their-ambassadors-from-qatar-1.1299586
  39. UN: Yemen Faces World’s Worst Cholera Outbreak. (2017, June 25). Al Jazeera. Retrieved from http://www.aljazeera.com/news/2017/06/yemen-faces-world-worst-cholera-outbreak-170625041932829.html
  40. Wehrey, F. (2017, July 1). Whoever Controls Benghazi Controls Libya. The Atlantic. Retrieved from https://www.theatlantic.com/international/archive/2017/07/benghazi-libya/532056/
  41. What Are the 13 Demands Given to Qatar? (2017, June 23). Gulf News. Retrieved from http://gulfnews.com/news/gulf/qatar/qatar-crisis/what-are-the-13-demands-given-to-qatar-1.2048118
  42. Yemen: UAE Backs Abusive Local Forces. (2017, June 22). Human Rights Watch. Retrieved from https://www.hrw.org/news/2017/06/22/yemen-uae-backs-abusive-local-forces
  43. Young, K. (2017, August 4). Self-Imposed Barriers to Economic Integration in the GCC, The Arab Gulf States Institute in Washington. Retrieved from http://www.agsiw.org/self-imposed-barriers-economic-integration-gcc/

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Gülşah Neslihan Akkaya
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Political Science and Public AdministrationAnkara Yıldırım Beyazıt UniversityAnkaraTurkey

Personalised recommendations