• Cenap Çakmak
  • Ali Onur Özçelik


Tunisia is the country where the Arab Spring had its initial spark. An unemployed young man, Mohamed Bouazizi, set himself on fire to protest against economic hardship in the country and the government’s brutality at the end of 2010. By inspiring many civilians to protest high unemployment, poverty, corruption, and political repression, the Arab Spring has turned into a protracted power struggle and even in some cases civil wars (e.g. Syria, Libya). Swiftly spreading across several countries in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA), the Arab Spring was translated into a symbol of the reawakening of Arab societies. It was widely acknowledged that the Arab Spring opened a window of opportunity to introduce a normative agenda regarding democracy, human rights and the rule of law and also triggered hope for democratic reforms and consolidation of civil societies living in the MENA.

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© The Author(s) 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Cenap Çakmak
    • 1
  • Ali Onur Özçelik
    • 2
  1. 1.Independent ResearcherEskişehirTurkey
  2. 2.Eskişehir Osmangazi UniversityEskişehirTurkey

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