Environmental Instruments in Development Cooperation: Promoting Better Development and Environmental Outcomes?
This chapter focuses on the EU’s track record of integrating, or mainstreaming, environmental objectives into in its development policy. The chapter sets out the relevant legal and policy framework before briefly introducing the main policy instruments into which environmental objectives can be integrated, such as the Development Cooperation Instrument and the European Development Fund, as well as the Global Public Goods and Challenges (GPGC) programme. The chapter then empirically examines how effectively environmental integration is implemented in the 2014–2020 development cycle in Ghana with a specific focus on climate policy integration. Despite changes to the EU development policy and practice over the years, difficulties still remain in integrating the environment in practice. At times environmental objectives can even appear at odds with development objectives.
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