Latin America: A Pragmatic Approach and a Modest Contribution

  • Roberto Dominguez
Part of the The European Union in International Affairs book series (EUIA)


Across the past two decades, the EU has attempted to transmit its conception of sound environmental practices throughout the developing world. In the context of Latin America, however, the contribution of the EU has been limited. This chapter argues that this is due to the comparatively minimal economic and political sway of the EU in the region, the region’s pre-existing commitment to implementing international environmental norms, internal demands for better environmental standards, and strong bilateral environmental cooperation with the United States. Though the EU policies are broadly effective in their stated objectives, they are comparatively underwhelming in funding, constituting but one of several nuances which contour the formation of national environmental policies throughout the region.


  1. Afionis, Stavros, and Lindsay C. Stringer. 2014. The Environment as a Strategic Priority in the European Union–Brazil Partnership: Is the EU Behaving as a Normative Power or Soft Imperialist? International Environmental Agreements: Politics, Law & Economics 14: 47–64.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Araujo, Jorge Thompson, Markus Brueckner, Mateo Clavijo, Ekaterina Vostroknutova, and Konstantin M. Wacker. 2014. Beyond Commodities the Growth Challenge of Latin America and the Caribbean.
  3. Boniatti-Pavese, Carolina. 2013. Level-Linkage in European Union–Brazil Relations: An Analysis of Cooperation on Climate Change, Trade, and Human Rights. Ph.D. dissertation, London School of Economics and Political Science.Google Scholar
  4. CARICOM Today. 2015. CDB, IDB Sign Agreement for US$71.5M Sustainable Eastern Caribbean Energy Programme. CARICOM Today, October 20.
  5. CLIMACAP. 2014. The Project. Integrated Climate Modelling and Capacity Building in Latin America (CLIMACAP). Accessed 12 Dec 2016.
  6. Climate Policy Observer. 2016. Climate Cooperation in Latin America and Caribbean Countries. Accessed 2 Feb 2017.
  7. Council of the European Union. 2008. V Latin America and Caribbean-European Union Summit. Lima Declaration. 9534/08 Presse 128. Lima, January 27.Google Scholar
  8. ———. 2013. Santiago Declaration. 5747/13 Press 31. Santiago de Chile, January 27.Google Scholar
  9. ———. 2015. Brussels Declaration. Brussels.Google Scholar
  10. Dominguez, Roberto. 2015a. Environmental Governance in the EU–Latin American Relationship. Regions & Cohesion 5 (3): 63–82.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. ———. 2015b. EU Foreign Policy Towards Latin America. New York: Palgrave.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Durán Lima, José E., Ricardo Herrera, Pierre Lebret, and Myriam Echeverría. 2014. Latin America-European Union Cooperation. A Partnership for Development. Santiago, Chile: Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean (ECLAC).Google Scholar
  13. Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean. 2014. The Economics of Climate Change in Latin America and the Caribbean Paradoxes and Challenges. United Nations: Santiago de Chile.Google Scholar
  14. ECPA [European Crop Protection Association]. 2017. Initiatives. Sustainable Energy Capacity Building Initiative—Caribbean 2017. Accessed 30 Jan 2017.
  15. Environmental Protection Agency. 2015. EPA Efforts in Latin America and the Caribbean. Accessed 15 Apr 2016.
  16. EU REDD Facility. 2016. What We Do. Accessed 1 Sep 2016.
  17. EU-FLEGT [Forest Law Enforcement, Governance and Trade]. 2014. Objective. Accessed 14 Sep 2014.
  18. EUROCLIMA. 2017. What is EUROCLIMA. Accessed 15 Jun 2014.
  19. EuropeAid. 2013. Launch of the Call for Proposals for the New Regional Project “Watershed and Coastal Management in the context of Climate Change in Latin America and Caribbean” WATERCLIMA LAC. Port of Spain: Press Release.Google Scholar
  20. ———. 2014a. Latin America. Regional Cooperation.Google Scholar
  21. ———. 2014b. Poverty Reduction Through Forest Conservation in Southern Bahia.Google Scholar
  22. European Commission. 2014. Experiences of the European Union. Regional Development Cooperation with Latin America on Climate Change, Renewable Energies and Water. Luxembourg: European Commission.Google Scholar
  23. ———. 2015a. Annual Report on the European Union’s Development and External Assistance Policies and Their Implementation in 2015.Google Scholar
  24. ———. 2015b. International Issues, November 19.Google Scholar
  25. ———. 2016a. Basis of EU-Brazil Cooperation. August 8.Google Scholar
  26. ———. 2016b. Client and Supplier Countries of the EU28 in Merchandise Trade.
  27. ———. 2016c. Latin America—Regional Cooperation, 28 June 2016.
  28. ———. 2016e. Partnership Instrument. First Multi-annual Indicative Programme for the Period 2014–2017.
  29. ———. 2017a. Bolivia. Accessed 10 Feb 2017.
  30. ———. 2017b. Guatemala. Accessed 10 Feb 2017.
  31. ———. 2017c. Nicaragua. Accessed 10 Feb 2017.
  32. European Investment Bank. 2013. Promoting Global Growth. Asia and Latin America.Google Scholar
  33. EURO-SOLAR. 2013. The Programme. Accessed 15 Mar 2014.
  34. Grantham Research Institute on Climate Change and the Environment. 2016a. Brazil. Accessed 1 Aug 2016.
  35. ———. 2016b. Colombia. Accessed 1 Aug 2016.
  36. ———. 2016c. Ecuador. Accessed 1 Aug 2016.
  37. ———. 2016d. Mexico. Accessed 1 Aug 2016.
  38. ———. 2016e. Peru. Accessed 1 Aug 2016.
  39. Hussain, Imtiaz, and Roberto Dominguez. 2015. North American Regionalism and Global Spread. New York: Palgrave.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. IDB [Inter-America Development Bank]. 2016. Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services Program. Accessed 10 Nov 2016.
  41. IRENA [International Renewable Energy Agency]. 2015. Renewable Energy in Latin America 2015: An Overview of Policies. Abu Dhabi: IRENA.Google Scholar
  42. Mogherini, Federica. 2015. Speech of the HR/VP Federica Mogherini at the CELAC Summit—Heads of Government Meeting—Wednesday 28 January 2015.
  43. Neumandec, William. 2014. An Economic Boom Recedes, but South America Might Avert the Bust. New York Times, December 29.
  44. United Nations. 2015. The Millennium Development Goals Report. Regional Backgrounder Latin America and the Caribbean. New York: UN Department of Public Information.Google Scholar
  45. United Nations Environment Programme. 2010. Latin America and the Caribbean: Environment Outlook. Geo Lac. Panama City: United Nations Environment Programme.Google Scholar
  46. United Nations Framework on Climate Change. 2015. Latin American Cities Commit to Act on Climate. Buenos Aires, Argentina: UNFCCC.Google Scholar
  47. ———. 2016. Countries in Latin American and Caribbean Region Leading Climate Action Latam-Caribbean Carbon Forum. Accessed 29 Jan 2017.
  48. ———. 2017. Paris Agreement. Status Ratification.
  49. Viscidi, Lisa, and Rebecca O’Connor. 2016. How Can Latin America Move to Low-Carbon Energy? New York Times, November 24.
  50. Vosti, Stephen, Siwa Msangi, Eirivelthon Lima, Ricardo Quiroga, Miroslav Batka, and Chad Zanocco. 2011. Agricultural Greenhouse Gas Emissions in Latin America and the Caribbean: Current Situation, Future Trends and One Policy Experiment. Washington, DC: Inter-American Development Bank.Google Scholar
  51. World Bank. 2013. Latin America: Facing off Climate Change with Green Innovation.

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Roberto Dominguez
    • 1
  1. 1.Suffolk UniversityBostonUSA

Personalised recommendations