Analyzing Patient Preference for Nipple-Areola Complex Reconstruction Using Utility Outcome Studies

  • Ahmed M. S. IbrahimEmail author
  • Frank H. Lau
  • Hani H. Sinno
  • Bernard T. Lee
  • Samuel J. Lin


Restoration of the nipple-areola complex (NAC) is a fundamental component of the reconstructive process. Despite its reportedly important effect on a patient’s self-esteem, not all women opt to undergo this procedure. There is a paucity of evidence in the literature looking at patient preferences for NAC reconstruction. Utility outcome studies permit the objective standardization of the health state preference of a health condition or disease state. A sample of the general population and medical students at McGill University were recruited to establish the utility scores (standard gamble (SG), time trade-off (TTO), and visual analogue scale (VAS)) of living with a NAC deformity. The current data indicates that the general population would be prepared to risk an 8% chance of death in order to obtain perfect health and a willingness to sacrifice 2.8 years of life when choosing to undergo NAC reconstruction. In this chapter, the use of utility outcome studies for analyzing patient preferences for NAC reconstruction based on a previously published study by the authors is discussed.


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ahmed M. S. Ibrahim
    • 1
    Email author
  • Frank H. Lau
    • 1
  • Hani H. Sinno
    • 2
  • Bernard T. Lee
    • 3
  • Samuel J. Lin
    • 3
  1. 1.Division of Plastic and Reconstructive SurgeryLouisiana State University Health Sciences CenterNew OrleansUSA
  2. 2.Division of Plastic SurgeryMcGill UniversityMontrealCanada
  3. 3.Division of Plastic and Reconstructive SurgeryBeth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical SchoolBostonUSA

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