Nipple Reconstruction: Risk Factors and Complications

  • Gabrielle B. DavisEmail author
  • Travis Miller
  • Gordon Lee


The authors discuss the anatomy of the nipple-areolar complex (NAC) and the history of the nipple-areolar reconstruction and then describe techniques of nipple reconstruction and outcomes with local flaps, graft-based nipple reconstruction and nipple sharing, nipple augmentation, nipple tattooing and 3D nipple tattooing, and timing of nipple reconstruction. Outcomes are described. General principles can be applied to maximize outcomes such as minimizing tension, designing the pedicle away from existing scars, and providing a wide base to the pedicle to allow adequate blood supply. Loss of projection with time is inevitable and related to wound contracture and applied external pressure.


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Gabrielle B. Davis
    • 1
    Email author
  • Travis Miller
    • 1
  • Gordon Lee
    • 1
  1. 1.Division of Plastic Surgery, Department of SurgeryStanford UniversityPalo AltoUSA

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