Advertisement

Nipple-Areola Complex Reconstruction with Dermal-Fat Flaps: Technical Improvement from Rolled Auricular Cartilage to Artificial Bone

  • Hiroko Yanaga
  • Katsu Yanaga
Chapter

Abstract

The method by Yanaga successfully achieved NAC reconstruction with dermal-fat flaps and cartilage or artificial bone. An advantage of this method is that a base is formed by the dermis at the central portion of the two dermal-fat flaps, so the probability of retraction is greatly reduced. The authors also use a method of skin grafting from a proximal portion of the inner thigh for adaptation to the texture and color tone of the NAC. This method enables NAC reconstruction in one step.

References

  1. 1.
    Millard DR Jr. Nipple and areolar reconstruction by split-skin graft from the normal side. Plast Reconstr Surg. 1972;50:350–3.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Bostwick J III. Plastic and reconstruction breast surgery. 2nd ed. St. Louis: Quality Medical Publishing; 2000.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Spear SL. Surgery of the breast, vol. 2. 2nd ed. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2006.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Little JW 3rd, Munasifi T, McCulloch DT. One-stage reconstruction of a projecting nipple: the quadrapod flap. Plast Reconstr Surg. 1983;71:126–33.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Hartrampf CR Jr, Culbertson JH. A dermal-fat flap for nipple reconstruction. Plast Reconstr Surg. 1984;73:982–6.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Chang WH. Nipple reconstruction with a T flap. Plast Reconstr Surg. 1984;73:140–3.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Cohen IK, Ward JA, Chandresekhar B. The pinwheel flap nipple and barrier areola graft reconstruction. Plast Reconstr Surg. 1986;77:995–9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Little JW 3rd, Spear SL. The finishing touches in nipple-areolar reconstruction. Perspect Plast Surg. 1988;2:1.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Weiss J, Herman O, Rosenberg L, et al. The S nipple-areola reconstruction. Plast Reconstr Surg. 1989;83:904–6.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Kroll SS, Hamilton S. Nipple reconstruction with the double-opposing-tab flap. Plast Reconstr Surg. 1989;84:520–5.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Anton MR, Eskenazi LB, Hartrampf CR Jr. Nipple reconstruction with local flaps: star and wrap flaps. Perspect Plast Surg. 1991;5:67–78.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Thomas SV, Gellis MB, Pool R. Nipple reconstruction with a new local tissue flap. Plast Reconstr Surg. 1996;97:1053–6.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Losken A, Mackay GJ, Bostwick J 3rd. Nipple reconstruction using the C-V flap technique: a long-term evaluation. Plast Reconstr Surg. 2001;108:361–9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Hammond DC, Khuthaila D, Kim J. The skate flap purse-string technique for nipple-areola complex reconstruction. Plast Reconstr Surg. 2007;120:399–406.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Shestak KC, Gabriel A, Landecker A, et al. Assessment of long-term nipple projection: a comparison of three techniques. Plast Reconstr Surg. 2002;110:780–6.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Brent B, Bostwick J. Nipple-areola reconstruction with auricular tissues. Plast Reconstr Surg. 1977;60:353–61.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Tanable HY, Tai Y, Kiyokawa K, Yamauchi T. Nipple-areola reconstruction with a dermal-fat flap and rolled auricular cartilage. Plast Reconstr Surg. 1997;100:431–8.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Yanaga H. Nipple-areola reconstruction with a dermal-fat flap: technical improvement from rolled auricular cartilage to artificial bone. Plast Reconstr Surg. 2003;112:1863–9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Becker H. The use of intradermal tattoo to enhance the final result of nipple-areola reconstruction. Plast Reconstr Surg. 1986;77:673–6.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Hugo NE, Sultan MR, Hardy SP. Nipple-areola reconstruction with intradermal tattoo and double-opposing pennant flaps. Ann Plast Surg. 1993;30:510–3.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Eskenazi L. A one-stage nipple reconstruction with the “modified star” flap and immediate tattoo: a review of 100 cases. Plast Reconstr Surg. 1993;92:671–80.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Spear SL, Convit R, Little JW 3rd. Intradermal tattoo as an adjunct to nipple-areola reconstruction. Plast Reconstr Surg. 1989;83:907–11.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Wong RK, Banducci DR, Feldman S, et al. Pre-reconstruction tattooing eliminates the need for skin grafting in nipple areolar reconstruction. Plast Reconstr Surg. 1993;92:547–9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Broadbent TR, Woolf RM, Metz PS. Restoring the mammary areola by a skin graft from the upper inner thigh. Br J Plast Surg. 1977;30:220–2.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Guerra AB, Khoobehi K, Metzinger SE, et al. New technique for nipple areola reconstruction: arrow flap and rib cartilage graft for long-lasting nipple projection. Ann Plast Surg. 2003;50:31–7.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Note

  1. 1.
    In reference 17, the author name H. Tanable (Hiroko Tanable) has been changed to H. Yanaga (Hiroko Yanaga) in 1999.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Yanaga Clinic and Tissue Culture LaboratoryFukuokaJapan

Personalised recommendations