Nipple-Areola Complex Reconstruction

  • Andrea SistiEmail author
  • Juri Tassinari
  • Roberto Cuomo
  • Cesare Brandi
  • Giuseppe Nisi
  • Luca Grimaldi
  • Carlo D’Aniello


The reconstruction of the nipple-areola complex (NAC) is the reconstructive procedure used in patients who have undergone a non-nipple-sparing mastectomy and, in general, in all the patients who need the reconstruction or creation of the nipple for traumatic damage or congenital absence/malformation. Several methods for the reconstruction of the nipple-areola complex were described. The nipple can be reconstructed using a local flap, a local flap of material with a grafting autologous/allogeneic/synthetic inside, a skin graft, or a subdermal pocket with grafted material inside. The areola can be reconstructed using skin graft from hyperpigmented areas or tattoo. The prosthesis (internal or external) and the three-dimensional tattoo allow the reconstruction of the NAC in one time and with a single method.


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Andrea Sisti
    • 1
    Email author
  • Juri Tassinari
    • 1
  • Roberto Cuomo
    • 1
  • Cesare Brandi
    • 1
  • Giuseppe Nisi
    • 1
  • Luca Grimaldi
    • 1
  • Carlo D’Aniello
    • 1
  1. 1.Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery Unit, Department of Medicine, Surgery and NeuroscienceS. Maria alle Scotte Hospital, University of SienaSienaItaly

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