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Vascular Anatomy of the Breast and Nipple-Areola Complex

  • Petrus van Deventer
Chapter

Abstract

The blood supply to the breast is the result of the embryonic development, and therefore a basic horizontal segmental pattern similar to that of the thoracic wall exists. The main sources are the internal thoracic, lateral thoracic, anterior intercostal and acromio-thoracic arteries. The branches from the main sources have fixed areas where they originate on the thoracic wall, but the further distribution and patterns formed to supply the nipple-areola complex vary considerably. In some instances one or more of the main sources are underdeveloped or absent. The result of which is the change in the basic horizontal pattern in a variety of different patterns. The most reliable source is the upper four perforating branches of the internal thoracic artery.

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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Division of Plastic and Reconstructive SurgeryUniversity of StellenboschTygerbergSouth Africa
  2. 2.Faculty of Health SciencesUniversity of StellenboschTygerbergSouth Africa

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