Correction of the Inverted Nipple

  • Daniel J. GouldEmail author
  • W. Grant Stevens


Nipple inversion is common, occurring in 2–10% of the female population. It can be congenital or acquired, and patients report difficulty breastfeeding and interference with their sexuality when seeking treatment. This deformity can cause significant psychological trauma, and though surgical repair has been developed over the years, little data exists regarding recurrence rates, complications, and the demographics of patients seeking this type of surgery. In this chapter, we demonstrate an integrated approach to the correction of nipple inversion that minimizes ductal disruption. This approach is ideal, as it does not interfere with future breastfeeding, it provides a long-term robust repair, and it is relatively easy to administer in an outpatient setting. The correction of nipple inversion involves blunt dissection and vertical spreading parallel to the lactiferous ducts. The majority of the time lactiferous ducts are preserved, although sometimes selective division of only those ducts that restrict nipple projection is performed. Traction stenting helps ensure eversion and protects the repair. Our technique produces excellent results with a recurrence rate of 12.6%. In our experience, this technique has proven effective and safe for the treatment of inverted nipples.


Conflict of Interest Statement

This research received no specific grant from any funding agency in the public, commercial, or not-for-profit sectors. The individual authors have no conflicts of interest to declare as they relate to this study and the findings.


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Plastic and Reconstructive SurgeryUniversity of Southern CaliforniaLos AngelesUSA
  2. 2.Marina Plastic Surgery AssociatesLos AngelesUSA

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