How to Avoid Nipple–Areola Complex Complications in High-Grade Gynecomastia Patients Treated by Mastectomy: Surgical Pearls

  • Daniele BordoniEmail author
  • Giuseppe Falco
  • Pierfrancesco Cadenelli
  • Matteo Ornelli
  • Alberto Patriti
  • Ariel Tessone
  • Marco Serafini
  • Cesare Magalotti


Gynecomastia is an enlargement of the male breast common in both neonates and adolescent boys and senescent males. The authors discuss classification and the surgical treatment of gynecomastia as well as nonsurgical therapeutic options for treatment of gynecomastia that are based on medical therapy aimed to achieve a spontaneous regression of breast tissue regulating the hormonal imbalance. Described are the authors’ technique of performing the procedure and the results thereof.

The technique proposed allows one to avoid volume deficit, shape and surface asymmetries, and scar retraction. Furthermore, the conic shape pedicle dramatically reduces the risk of nipple–areolar complex abnormalities.


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Daniele Bordoni
    • 1
    Email author
  • Giuseppe Falco
    • 2
  • Pierfrancesco Cadenelli
    • 3
  • Matteo Ornelli
    • 4
  • Alberto Patriti
    • 5
  • Ariel Tessone
    • 6
  • Marco Serafini
    • 1
  • Cesare Magalotti
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of SenologyOspedale Santa Maria della MisericordiaUrbinoItaly
  2. 2.Department of SenologyArcispedale S. Maria Nuova—IRCCSReggio EmiliaItaly
  3. 3.Department of Plastic SurgeryOspedale San GerardoMonzaItaly
  4. 4.Department of Plastic SurgeryUniversità Politecnica delle MarcheAnconaItaly
  5. 5.Department of General SurgeryOspedale San SalvatorePesaroItaly
  6. 6.Department of Plastic SurgeryThe Talpiot Medical Leadersjip Program, Sheba Medical CenterRamat GanIsrael

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