Safety Training Using Virtual Reality: A Comparative Approach

  • Giovanni Avveduto
  • Camilla Tanca
  • Cristian Lorenzini
  • Franco Tecchia
  • Marcello Carrozzino
  • Massimo Bergamasco
Conference paper
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 10324)


Virtual Reality is widely regarded as an extremely promising solution for industrial training purposes, as it allows to perform simulated hands-on activities in a controlled and safe environment. In this paper we present a Virtual Reality system aimed at providing a training solution for safety inside a generic power plant environment. The system includes several scenarios in order to offer a wide range of tasks and situations. We have tested the system with a sample of users in order to compare the effectiveness of traditional training against our system in terms of theoretical and practical learning. We carried on our study with questionnaires and observing the behaviour of all the users inside the Virtual Environment. We also studied the involvement of trainees and sense of presence generated by the system, as it is an important driver of user engagement and, consequently, impacts on motivation and training efficacy.


Virtual environments Virtual Reality Training Safety 


  1. 1.
    Alliger, G.M., Janak, E.A.: Kirkpatrick’s levels of training criteria: thirty years later. Pers. Psychol. 42(2), 331–342 (1989)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Barsalou, L.W.: Grounded cognition. Annu. Rev. Psychol. 59, 617–645 (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Biocca, F., Delaney, B.: Immersive virtual reality technology. In: Communication in the Age of Virtual Reality, pp. 57–124 (1995)Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Bryson, A.: Health and safety risks in Britain’s workplaces: where are they and who controls them? Ind. Relat. J. 47(5–6), 547–566 (2016)Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Cardoso, A., Prado, P.R., Lima, G.F.M., Lamounier, E.: A virtual reality based approach to improve human performance and to minimize safety risks when operating power electric systems. In: Cetiner, S.M., Fechtelkotter, P., Legatt, M. (eds.) Advances in Human Factors in Energy: Oil, Gas, Nuclear and Electric Power Industries. AISC, vol. 495, pp. 171–182. Springer, Cham (2017). doi:10.1007/978-3-319-41950-3_15 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Chao, K.-J., Huang, H.-W., Fang, W.-C., Chen, N.-S.: Embodied play to learn: exploring kinect-facilitated memory performance. Br. J. Educ. Technol. 44(5), E151–E155 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Gavish, N., Gutiérrez, T., Webel, S., Rodríguez, J., Peveri, M., Bockholt, U., Tecchia, F.: Evaluating virtual reality and augmented reality training for industrial maintenance and assembly tasks. Interact. Learn. Environ. 23(6), 778–798 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    He, C., Şen, H.T., Kim, S., Sadda, P., Kazanzides, P.: Fusion of inertial sensing to compensate for partial occlusions in optical tracking systems. In: Linte, C.A., Yaniv, Z., Fallavollita, P., Abolmaesumi, P., Holmes, D.R. (eds.) AE-CAI 2014. LNCS, vol. 8678, pp. 60–69. Springer, Cham (2014). doi:10.1007/978-3-319-10437-9_7 Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Kirkpatrick, D.L.: Evaluation of Training. McGraW-Hill, New York (1967)Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Kirkpatrick, D.L.: Evaluating Training Programs. Tata McGraw-Hill Education, San Francisco (1975)Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Kirkpatrick, D.L.: Techniques for evaluating training programs. Train. Dev. J. 78–92 (1979)Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Li, H., Daugherty, T., Biocca, F.: Impact of 3-d advertising on product knowledge, brand attitude, and purchase intention: the mediating role of presence. J. Advert. 31(3), 43–57 (2002)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Lombard, M., Ditton, T.: At the heart of it all: the concept of presence. J. Comput. Mediat. Commun. 3(2) (1997). doi:10.1111/j.1083-6101.1997.tb00072.x, ISSN 1083-6101
  14. 14.
    Manca, D., Brambilla, S., Colombo, S.: Bridging between virtual reality and accident simulation for training of process-industry operators. Adv. Eng. Softw. 55, 1–9 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Phillips, J.J.: How much is the training worth? Train. Dev. 50(4), 20–25 (1996)Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Sheridan, T.B.: Musings on telepresence and virtual presence. Presence Teleoper. Virtual Environ. 1(1), 120–126 (1992)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Slater, M., Frisoli, A., Tecchia, F., Guger, C., Lotto, B., Steed, A., Pfurtscheller, G., Leeb, R., Reiner, M., Sanchez-Vives, M.V., et al.: Understanding and realizing presence in the Presenccia project. IEEE Comput. Graph. Appl. 27(4), 90–93 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Tecchia, F., Avveduto, G., Brondi, R., Carrozzino, M., Bergamasco, M., Alem, L.: I’m in VR! using your own hands in a fully immersive MR system. In: Proceedings of the 20th ACM Symposium on Virtual Reality Software and Technology, pp. 73–76. ACM (2014)Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Van Wyk, E., De Villiers, R.: Virtual reality training applications for the mining industry. In: Proceedings of the 6th International Conference on Computer Graphics, Virtual Reality, Visualisation and Interaction in Africa, pp. 53–63. ACM (2009)Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Witmer, B.G., Singer, M.J.: Measuring presence in virtual environments: a presence questionnaire. Presence Teleoper. Virtual Environ. 7(3), 225–240 (1998)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Zohar, D., Erev, I.: On the difficulty of promoting workers’ safety behaviour: overcoming the underweighting of routine risks. Int. J. Risk Assess. Manag. 7(2), 122–136 (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Giovanni Avveduto
    • 1
  • Camilla Tanca
    • 1
  • Cristian Lorenzini
    • 1
  • Franco Tecchia
    • 1
  • Marcello Carrozzino
    • 1
  • Massimo Bergamasco
    • 1
  1. 1.Scuola Superiore Sant’AnnaPisaItaly

Personalised recommendations