Upper and Lower Gastrointestinal Bleeding

  • Paola Fugazzola
  • Giulia Montori
  • Camilla Bing
  • Fausto Catena
  • Massimo Sartelli
  • Luca Ansaloni
  • Federico Coccolini


More than 1% of people aged 80 years and older are hospitalized each year because of gastrointestinal bleeding, and rates of both upper and lower GI hemorrhages increase significantly with aging. Gastrointestinal bleeding in such elderly people can originate from lesions common to all age groups or from lesions associated specifically with aging. Although the approach to the diagnosis and management of gastrointestinal bleeding is not specific to elderly people, elderly people differ from younger people in the same conditions for several aspects of clinical presentation and outcomes. In elderly people, morbidity and mortality from GI bleeding are determined by both the nature and the entity of bleeding and by the presence of comorbid medical conditions, including cardiovascular and pulmonary disease; furthermore, they are commonly prescribed numerous medications which may compromise mucosal integrity and predispose bleeding (aspirin, NSAID, anticoagulant, and antiplatelet medications). In this chapter, clinical presentation, etiology, risk factors, diagnostic tools, and management in upper and lower gastrointestinal bleeding are explained.


Gastrointestinal hemorrhage Elderly Hematemesis Melena Peptic ulcer Diverticular hemorrhage 


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Paola Fugazzola
    • 1
  • Giulia Montori
    • 1
  • Camilla Bing
    • 2
  • Fausto Catena
    • 3
  • Massimo Sartelli
    • 4
  • Luca Ansaloni
    • 1
  • Federico Coccolini
    • 1
  1. 1.General, Emergency and Trauma Surgery DepartmentPapa Giovanni XXIII HospitalBergamoItaly
  2. 2.General Surgery DepartmentSan Giuseppe HospitalEmpoliItaly
  3. 3.Emergency Surgery DepartmentParma University HospitalParmaItaly
  4. 4.General and Emergency Surgery DepartmentMacerata HospitalMacerataItaly

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