Advertisement

Asia’s Security Competition by Proxy: Competitive HADR as a Respectable Arena?

  • Alan Chong
  • Il Woo Lee
Chapter

Abstract

Following recent events such as Cyclone Nargis impacting Myanmar, Typhoon Haiyan in the Philippines and more recently the MH370 incident, Humanitarian Assistance and Disaster Relief (HADR) has emerged as a new field of security competition in Asia. While dominant analytical narratives seem to treat HADR as an avenue for hard power to transfigure itself into soft power, this chapter asserts that HADR does not fit neatly into a liberal security paradigm. HADR is actually a form of security competition by proxy, implying that there are neoliberal and neorealist possibilities in states engaging in HADR campaigns. HADR allows states to promote images of national technological superiority, models of good governance and low risk yet high signature contingency deployments of both armed forces and civilian forces. This is perhaps a security competition that allows national rivalries to play out without the risk of outright war. The three illustrative cases mentioned above will support the argument.

References

  1. Agence France Presse. 2013. Japanese Troops Welcomed Back in Typhoon-Hit Philippines. Bangkok Post, November 22.Google Scholar
  2. Alexander, D. 1993. Natural Disasters. London: UCL Press.Google Scholar
  3. Apps, P., and F.J. Daniel. 2014. Malaysian Plane Saga Highlights Air Defense Gaps. Reuters, March 15. Available at: http://www.reuters.com/article/2014/03/15/us-malaysia-airlines-defence-idUSBREA2E0JT20140315. Accessed 3 July 2014.
  4. Arquilla, J., and D. Ronfeldt. 1997. Cyberwar is Coming! In In Athena’s Camp: Preparing for Conflict in the Information Age, ed. J. Arquilla and D. Ronfeldt, 23–60. Santa Monica: RAND.Google Scholar
  5. Asia News. 2008. Myanmar: Let Them Eat Frogs, Says Ruling Junta. Spero News, May 30.Google Scholar
  6. Associated Press (Singapore). 2008. ASEAN to Handle Foreign Aid for Myanmar Cyclone Victims. Jakarta Post, May 19.Google Scholar
  7. Associated Press (Washington). 2008. Bush Says World Should Condemn Myanmar. Jakarta Post, May 13.Google Scholar
  8. ATSB. 2014. MH370 – Definition of Underwater Search Areas. ATSB External Aviation Investigation AE-2014-054. 26 June 2014. Australian Government, Australian Transport Safety Bureau. Canberra: Australian Transport Safety Bureau.Google Scholar
  9. Bankoff, G. 2003. Cultures of Disaster: Society and Natural Hazard in the Philippines. London: Routledge.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. BBC News. 2013. Typhoon Haiyan: China Sends Relief Team to Philippines. BBC News – China, November 20.Google Scholar
  11. Buzan, B., O. Wæver, and J. de Wilde. 1998. Security: A New Framework for Analysis. Boulder: Lynne Rienner.Google Scholar
  12. CBC News. 2008. Burmese Junta Forcing Victims out of Emergency Camps: Amnesty. CBC News – World, June 5.Google Scholar
  13. CEDMHA. 2014. Lessons from Civil-Military Disaster Management and Humanitarian Response to Typhoon Haiyan (Yolanda). Center for Excellence in Disaster Management and Humanitarian Assistance. Joint Base Pearl Harbor-Hickam, Hawaii: Center for Excellence in Disaster Management and Humanitarian Assistance.Google Scholar
  14. Channel News Asia. 2014a. Central Asian States Report No Sighting of Malaysian jet. Channel News Asia.com, March 18. Available at: http://www.channelnewsasia.com/news/asiapacific/central-asian-states/1039310.htm. Accessed 22 Mar 2014.
  15. ———. 2014b. China Demands Transparency over Missing Jet. Channel News Asia.com, March 18. Available at : www.channelnewsasia.com/news/asiapacific/china-demands/1039742.html. Accessed 20 Mar 2014.
  16. ———. 2014c. Chinese Slam Malaysia for “Contradictory” Details on Missing Jet. Channel News Asia.com, March 20. Available at: www.channelnewsasia.com/news/asiapacific/chinese-slam-malaysia-for/1038732.html. Accessed 21 Mar 2014.
  17. ———. 2014d. France to Offer Underwater Search Expertise to Locate Missing MH370. Retrieved March 20, 2014, from Channel News Asia: www.channelnewsasia.com/news/asiapacific/france-to-offer/1039792.html
  18. Chief Inspector of Air Accidents Malaysia. 2014. MH370 Preliminary Report. 9 April 2014. Ministry of Transport, Malaysia, Office of the Chief Inspector of Air Accidents. Putrajaya: Ministry of Transport, Malaysia.Google Scholar
  19. Chong, A. 2007. Foreign Policy in Global Information Space. Actualizing Soft Power. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. CNN.com. 2008. Myanmar Agrees to Accept ASEAN Cyclone Aid. CNN.com/Asia, May 19. Available at: http://edition.cnn.com/2008/WORLD/asiapcf/05/19/myanmar.aid/. Accessed 20 Aug 2015.
  21. Collins, A. 2013. Building a People-Oriented Security Community the ASEAN Way. Abingdon: Routledge.Google Scholar
  22. Einhorn, B. 2013. After Stingy Aid to Typhoon Victims, China Tries Damage Control. Bloomberg Business Week, November 20.Google Scholar
  23. Engstrom, J. 2013. Taking Disaster Seriously: East Asian Military Involvement in International Disaster Relief Operations and the Implications for Force Projection. Asian Security 9(1): 38–61.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Freedberg, S. J. 2016. US Army Plans Stockpiles in Vietnam, Cambodia: Hello China. Breaking Defense, March 15. Available at: http://breakingdefense.com/2016/03/us-army-plans-stockpiles-in-vietnam-cambodia-hello-china/. Accessed 7 Aug 2016.
  25. Hodal, K. 2013. Typhoon Haiyan: Philippines Aid Effort Hampered by Lawlessness. The Guardian.com, November 14.Google Scholar
  26. Jeon, H., and S.-A. Lee. 2013. Korean Troops Provide Aid to Haiyan Victims. Korea.Net, November 22. Available at: http://www.korea.net/NewsFocus/Policies/view?articleId=115320. Accessed 9 Aug 2016.
  27. Johnson, C. 2015. PLA’s Deeper Engagement In Military Drills Aligns With Xi’s Call For “Active” Chinese Diplomacy. Asia Maritime Transparency Initiative, March 3. Available at: https://amti.csis.org/plas-deeper-engagement-in-military-drills-aligns-with-xis-call-for-active-chinese-diplomacy/. Accessed 19 Aug 2016.
  28. Kant, I. 1996. Kant: Political Writings. Second, Enlarged Edition ed. H. Reiss, and trans. H. Nisbet. New York: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  29. Kor, K. B. 2014a. 3 Countries End South China Sea Search. Straits Times (Singapore), March 16.Google Scholar
  30. ———. 2014b. In Beijing; Relatives Torn by Latest Revelations. Straits Times (Singapore), March 16.Google Scholar
  31. Lei Zhao. 2014. Tech Gap Exposed in Search Mission. China Daily, April 8, p. 1.Google Scholar
  32. Lim, L. 2014. The Supper Club – Lim Wee Kiak: Lessons from an Unfortunate Event. The Straits Times (Singapore), April 5, p. D4.Google Scholar
  33. NST. 2014. Our Forces Are Ready, Capable. New Straits Times (Malaysia), April 9, p. 16.Google Scholar
  34. Nye, J.S., Jr. 2004. Soft Power: The Means to Success in World Politics. New York: Public Affairs.Google Scholar
  35. Pandit, R. 2014. Malaysia Jet Search: India Declines China’s Request to Enter Waters Around Andaman and Nicobar Islands. Times of India, March 20. Available at: http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/india/Malaysia-jet-search-India-declines-Chinas-request-to-enter-waters-around-Andaman-and-Nicobar-Islands/articleshow/32374611.cms. Accessed 1 July 2014.
  36. Perlez, J. 2013. China Increases Aid to Philippines. The New York Times, November 14.Google Scholar
  37. Steele, P. 2013. Disaster Preparedness: Lessons from Cyclone Nargis. Guardian Professional, July 16.Google Scholar
  38. Storey, I. 2012. China’s Bilateral Defense Diplomacy in Southeast Asia. Asian Security 8(3): 287–310.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. The Star. 2014. Missing MH370: Radar Data Suggests Plane Flown Deliberately Towards Andamans. The Star (Malaysia – Online). Available at: http://www.thestar.com.my/News/Nation/2014/03/14/Missing-MH370-Radar-data-suggests-missing-plane-flown-deliberately-towards-Andamans/. Accessed 2 July 2014.
  40. Tierney, K., and C. Bevc. 2007. Disaster as War: Militarism and the Social Construction of Disaster in New Orleans. In The Sociology of Katrina: Perspectives on a Modern Catastrophe, ed. D.L. Brunsma, D. Overfelt, and J.S. Picou, 35–49. Lanham: Rowman and Littlefield Publishers.Google Scholar
  41. UNEP. 2009. Learning from Cyclone Nargis: Investing in the Environment for Livelihoods and Disaster Risk Reduction. A Case Study. Nairobi: United Nations Environment Programme.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Alan Chong
    • 1
  • Il Woo Lee
    • 1
  1. 1.Centre for Multilateralism StudiesS. Rajaratnam School of International StudiesSingaporeSingapore

Personalised recommendations