Control Systems in Semi and Fully Automated Cars

  • Paweł Skruch
Conference paper
Part of the Advances in Intelligent Systems and Computing book series (AISC, volume 577)


The paper focuses on essential elements of the control systems that are currently used in semi-automated cars and those that will be used in fully automated cars named as autonomous cars. Autonomous car is a vehicle that is capable of sensing its environment and navigating without human input. The highest level of automated driving assumes that all activities done by the driver can be replaced by a suitable control system. In this context, the autonomous car can be regarded as a control system working in a closed-loop setting. The desired value for the defined control system is a vehicle state specified in the destination point where the car should be placed starting a ride from a given initial state. The car in automated driving mode affects other cars in traffic, elements of road infrastructure and other road users, such as pedestrians, cyclists, animals, etc. Set of sensors provides data on the environment surrounding the car in the area defined by their field of view. These data after initial pre-processing are used for detecting objects surrounding the vehicle. Data from different types of sensors are combined with each other in order to increase the confidence level of the objects detected in the vehicles neighbourhood. Having the list of detected objects a vehicle environmental model is created, which is used to analyse the current situation and then plan the trajectory of the vehicle to the destination state. Besides the vehicle environmental model an important role in fully automated cars plays the driver model by means of which can be determined the characteristics for the actuators in such a way that the dynamics of the vehicle is as close as possible to the situation in which the driver manually guides the vehicle. Models of vehicle kinematics and dynamics are essential to tune controllers that are responsible for determining the trajectory of the vehicle and its stability properties. It should be emphasised that due to the nature of the automotive industry a fully automated driving will not happen overnight, but as technology develops. Control systems already on the market are gradually developed and their functionalities will work towards taking overall control of the vehicle.


autonomous car automated driving control system 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1. Binder, R.: Testing Object-Oriented Systems: Models, Patterns, and Tools. Addison-Wesley, Boston, USA (1999)Google Scholar
  2. 2. Buchholz, K.: EETimes Europe: Model-based software development in the automotive industry. [16 April 2012] (2011)
  3. 3. Central Statistical Office: Road transport in Poland in the years 2012, 2013. [25 February 2017] (2015)
  4. 4. Commission of the European Communities: Directive 98/69/EC of the European parliament and of the Council of 13 October 1998 relating to measures to be taken against air pollution by emissions from motor vehicles and amending Council Directive 70/220/EEC. [25 February 2017] (1998)
  5. 5. Commission of the European Communities: Commision Directive 2002/80/EC of 3 October 2002 adapting to technical progress Council Directive 70/220/EEC relating to measures to be taken against air pollution by emissions from motor vehicles. [25 February 2017] (2002)
  6. 6. Commission of the European Communities: Communication from the commission. European road safety action programme. Halving the number of road accident victims in the European Union by 2010: a shared responsibility. [25 February 2017] (2003)
  7. 7. Commission of the European Communities: Regulation (EC) No 715/2007 of the European parliament and of the Council of 20 June 2007 on type approval of motor vehicles with respect to emissions from light passenger and commercial vehicles (Euro 5 and Euro 6) and on access to vehicle repair and maintenance information. [25 February 2017] (2007)
  8. 8. Commission of the European Communities: Road safety programme 2011-2020: detailed measures. MEMO/10/343. [25 February 2017] (2010)
  9. 9. Douglass, B.: Uml statecharts. Embedded Systems Programming 12(1), 22–42 (1999)Google Scholar
  10. 10. FlexRay Spec.: FlexRay communications system protocol specification, ver. 2.1, rev. A. http://www.flexray [7 May 2010] (2005)
  11. 11. Hahn, G., Philipps, J., Pretschner, A., Stauner, T.: Technical report TUM-I0301: Tests for mixed discrete-continuous systems. Institute for Computer Science, Technical University of Munich (2003)Google Scholar
  12. 12. Harel, D.: Statecharts: a visual formalism for complex systems. Science of Computer Programming 8(3), 231–274 (1987)Google Scholar
  13. 13. ISO 11898-1:2003: International Standard ISO 11898-1:2003: Road vehicles Controller area network (CAN) – Part 1: Data link layer and physical signalling. [16 April 2012] (2003)
  14. 14. ISO 11898-2:2003: International Standard ISO 11898-2:2003: Road vehicles Controller area network (CAN) – Part 2: High-speed medium access unit. [16 April 2012] (2003)
  15. 15. LIN Spec.: LIN specification package, rev. 2.1. [16 April 2012] (2006)
  16. 16. McKinsey Global Institute: Disruptive technologies: advances that will transform life, business, and the global economy. [25 February 2017] (2014)
  17. 17. MOST Spec.: MOST dynamic specification, rev. 3.0, 05/2008. [7 May 2010] (2008)
  18. 18. Myers, G.: The Art of Software Testing, 2nd ed. John Willey & Sons, New York, USA (2004)Google Scholar
  19. 19. Papoulis, A.: Circuits and Systems: A Modern Approach. Holt, Rinehart, and Winston, New York, USA (1980)Google Scholar
  20. 20. Skruch, P., Dlugosz, R., Kogut, K., Markiewicz, P., Sasin, D., Rozewicz, M.: The simulation strategy and its realization in the development process of active safety and advanced driver assistance systems. SAE Technical Paper 2015-01-1401 (2015)Google Scholar
  21. 21. The Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE): J3016: Taxonomy and definitions for terms related to driving automation systems for on-road motor vehicles. [25 February 2017] (2016)
  22. 22. Tung, J.: EE Times. Using model-based design to test and verify automotive embedded software. [04 May 2012] (2007)
  23. 23. U.S. Department of Transportation, National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA): Human factors evaluation of level 2 and level 3 automated driving concepts (DOT HS 812 044). [25 February 2017] (2014)
  24. 24. Waldrop, M.: Autonomous vehicles: no drivers required. Nature 518(7537), 20–23 (2015)Google Scholar
  25. 25. World Health Organization: Global status report on road safety 2013: supporting a decade of action. [25 February 2017] (2013)

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Automatics, Computer Science and Biomedical Engineering Department of Automatics and Biomedical EngineeringAGH University of Science and TechnologyKrakowPoland

Personalised recommendations