Duodenogastroesophageal Reflux

  • Ilse HoffmanEmail author


Gastroesophageal reflux disease is a multifactorial disorder in children and adults and results from reflux of gastric contents into the esophagus. Animal studies suggest the possibility of synergism between acid and pepsin and conjugated bile acids with a damaging potential for the esophageal mucosa. Human studies show an interaction between acid and duodenogastroesophageal reflux in inducing lesions. Gastroesophageal reflux symptoms are more related to acid reflux events than to non-acid reflux events. The role of duodenogastroesophageal reflux has been evaluated by endoscopy with biopsies, scintigraphy, aspiration studies, esophageal pH-monitoring/impedance, and bilirubin monitoring. Therapeutic options are reducing the secretion of gastric acid, prokinetics, baclofen, surgery, and mucosal protective agents.


Bile reflux Non-acid reflux Alkaline reflux Duodenogastroesophageal reflux Gastroesophageal reflux Gastroesophageal reflux disease Reflux esophagitis Children Bilitec Reference value bilitec Bilirubin monitoring pH-monitoring/impedance Barrett’s mucosa Bile salt Bile acids 



Duodenogastroesophageal reflux


Gastroesophageal reflux disease




Proton pump inhibitor


Reactive oxygen species


Transepithelial resistance


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.University Hospitals LeuvenLeuvenBelgium

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