Evolved Vulnerability to Addiction: The Problem of Opiates
According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), 2015 marked the record for drug overdoses in the United States as more than 33,000 individuals died from an overdose of heroin or synthetic opioids, with nearly half of these deaths attributed to prescription opioids. CDC estimates indicate that 60% of all drug overdose deaths involve opioids. Since 1999, opioid overdose has nearly quadrupled with more than half a million deaths documented between 2000 and 2015. Current estimates suggest that 91 citizens perish daily from opioid overdose (CDC, 2016).
KeywordsAddiction Substance abuse Opiates Evolved vulnerability Darwinian medicine Evolution Mental disorders Psychopathology
- Beck, A. K., Wright, F. D., Newman, C. F., & Liese, B. S. (1993). Cognitive therapy of substance abuse. New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
- Beer, B., Erb, R., Pavlic, M., Ulmer, H., Giacomuzzi, S., Riemer, Y., & Oberacher, H. (2013). Association of polymorhphisms in pahrmacogenetic candidate genes (OPRD1, GAL, ABCB1, OPRM1) with opioid dependence in European population: A case-control study. PloS One, 9(9), e75359.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Bickel, W. K., & Johnson, M. W. (2003). Delay discounting: A fundamental behavioral process of drug dependence. In G. Loewenstein, D. Read, & R. Baumeister (Eds.), Time and decision: Economic and psychological perspectives on intertemporal choice (pp. 419–440). New York, NY: Russell Sage.Google Scholar
- Bond, C., LaForge, K. S., Tian, M., Melia, D., Zhang, S., Borg, L., … Tischfield, J. A. (1998). Single-nucleotide polymorphism in the human mu opioid receptor gene alters beta-endorphin binding and activity: Possible implications for opiate addiction. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA, 95, 9608–9613.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Center for Substance Abuse Treatment (CSAT). (2005). Medication assisted treatment for opioid addiction in opioid addiction programs (treatment improvement protocols [TIP] series 43, [SMA] 05–4018). Rockville, MD: SAMHSA.Google Scholar
- Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2016). Injury prevention & control: Opioid overdose. Retrieved December 20, 2016, from https://www.cdc.gov/drugoverdose/.
- DiClemente, C. C. (2003). Addiction and change: How addictions develop and addicted people recover. New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
- Edenberg, H. J. (2007). The genetics of alcohol metabolism: Role of alcohol dehydrogenase and aldehyde dehydrogenase variants. Alcohol Research & Health, 30(1), 5–14.Google Scholar
- Food & Drug Administration (FDA). (2016). FDA requires strong warnings for opioid analgesics, prescription opioid cough products, and benzodiazepine labeling related to serious risks and death from combined use. Retrieved December 20, 2016, from, http://www.fda.gov/NewsEvents/Newsroom/PressAnnouncements/ucm518697.htm.
- Friedman, E. G. (2014). Assessment and treatment of individuals dependent on opioids. In S. L. Ashenberg Straussner (Ed.), Clinical work with substance-abusing clients (pp. 88–109). New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
- Kruger, D. J., & Kruger, J. S. (2016). Psychometric assessment of human life history predicts health related behaviors. Psychological Topics, 25, 19–28.Google Scholar
- Mattick, R. P., Breen, C., Kimber, J., & Davoli, M. (2009). Methadone maintenance therapy versus no opioid replacement therapy for opioid dependence. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews Issue, 3. doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD002209.pub2.
- Mestek, A., Chen, Y., & Yu, L. (1996). Mu opioid receptors: Cellular action and tolerance development. NIDA Research Monographs, 161, 104–126.Google Scholar
- Meyer, J. S., & Quenzer, L. F. (2013). Psychopharmacology: Drugs, the brain, and behavior. Sunderland, NY: Sinauer.Google Scholar
- Miller, W. R., & Rollnick, S. (2002). Motivational interviewing: Preparing people for change (2nd ed.). New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
- Mulligan, C. J., Robin, R. W., Osier, M. V., Sambuughin, N., Goldfarb, L. G., Kittles, R. A., … Long, J. C. (2003). Allelic variation at alcohol metabolism genes (ADH1B, ADH1C, ALDH2) and alcohol dependence in an American Indian population. Human Genetics, 113(4), 325–336.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Narcotics Anonymous (NA) World Services. (2016). Bulletin #29: Regarding methadone and other drug replacement programs. Retrieved 20 December, from https://www.na.org/?ID=bulletins-bull29.
- Nesse, R. M. (2016). Evolutionary psychology and mental health. In D. M. Buss (Ed.), The handbook of evolutionary psychology: Volume 2 integrations (2nd ed.pp. 1007–1026). New York, NY: Wiley.Google Scholar
- Nestler, E. J., Hyman, S. E., & Malenka, R. C. (2009). Molecular neuropharmacology: A foundation for clinical neuroscience (2nd ed.). New York, NY: McGraw-Hill.Google Scholar
- Olds, J. (1977). Drives and reinforcements: Behavioral studies of hypothalamic functions. New York: Raven Press.Google Scholar
- Panksepp, J. (1998). Affective neuroscience. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
- Putnam, R. D. (2001). Bowling alone: The collapse and revival of American community. New York, NY: Simon and Schuster.Google Scholar
- Robinson, T. E., & Berridge, K. C. (1993). The neural basis of drug craving: An incentive-sensitization view. Addiction, 95(Suppl. 2), S91–S117.Google Scholar
- Seiger, B. (2014). The clinical practice of harm reduction psychotherapy. In S. L. A. Straussner (Ed.), Clinical work with substance-abusing clients (pp. 165–178). New York, NY: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
- Shippenberg, T. S. (1993). Motivational effects of opioids. InOpioids II. Berlin Heidelberg: Springer.Google Scholar
- Song, F. W. (2009). Virtual communities: Bowling alone, online together. New York, NY: Peter Lang.Google Scholar
- Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality (SAMHSA). (2014). The NSDUH report: Substance use and mental health estimates from the 2013 national survey on drug use and health: Overview of findings. Rockville, MD. Retrieved from http://archive.samhsa.gov/data/2k14/NSDUH200/sr200-findings-overview-2014.pdf
- Volkow, N. D. (2014). America’s addiction to opioids: Heroin and prescription drug abuse. Senate Caucus on International Narcotics Control. Washington, DC.Google Scholar