Advertisement

Fibromyalgia

  • Mohamed Osama Hegazi
  • Mihaela Comina MicuEmail author
Chapter

Abstract

Fibromyalgia (FM) represents one of a group of soft tissue pain disorders that affect muscles and soft tissues, such as tendons and ligaments. The widespread body pain is usually associated with a number of manifestations that include fatigue, headache, sleep disorders, and cognitive disturbances. FM is not uncommon. In spite of being under-recognized, it is estimated to affect 2–3% of the worldwide general population. The multiple symptoms of FM are shared with numerous other medical disorders such as autoimmune rheumatic diseases, psychiatric disorders, and other chronic pain conditions. Additionally, there is no measurable or perceived structural damage, and patients have no diagnostic imaging or laboratory abnormal results. For the aforementioned reasons, most of FM patients are, at least initially, subject to wrong or delayed diagnosis. The existence of a comorbidity with a disease can significantly entangle its course starting from puzzling the diagnosis and ending with worsening the prognosis. FM has been linked to a broad spectrum of disorders that occur in FM patients in a higher frequency than that of the control populations. These disorders include cervical spondylosis, low back pain, spondyloarthropathies, rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, obesity, obstructive sleep apnea, hypertension, and last but not least coronary atherosclerosis. On the other hand, FM appreciably coexists with a list of diseases that are mainly autoimmune, chronic inflammatory, or rheumatic diseases, including but not limited to rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, ankylosing spondylitis, psoriatic arthritis, and inflammatory bowel disease. We here discuss the mutual impact of FM and its comorbidities from the diagnostic, therapeutic, prognostic, and future research points of view.

Keywords

Fibromyalgia Comorbidities in fibromyalgia Cervical spondylosis and fibromyalgia Low back pain and fibromyalgia Spondyloarthropathies and fibromyalgia Rheumatoid arthritis and fibromyalgia Systemic lupus erythematosus and fibromyalgia Obesity and fibromyalgia Obstructive sleep apnea and fibromyalgia Hypertension and fibromyalgia Coronary atherosclerosis and fibromyalgia 

References

  1. 1.
    Walitt B, Nahin RL, Katz RS, et al. The prevalence and characteristics of fibromyalgia in the 2012 national health interview survey. PLoS One. 2015;10:e0138024.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Mease P, Arnold LM, Choy EH, OMERACT Fibromyalgia Working Group, et al. Fibromyalgia syndrome module at OMERACT 9: domain construct. J Rheumatol. 2009;36:2318–29.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Clauw DJ, Arnold LM, BH MC, Fibro Collaborative. The science of fibromyalgia. Mayo Clin Proc. 2011;86:907–11.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Inanici F, Yunus MB. History of fibromyalgia: past to present. Curr Pain Headache Rep. 2004;8:369–78.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Clauw DJ. Fibromyalgia: a clinical review. JAMA. 2014;311:1547–55.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Wolfe F, Smythe HA, Yunus MB, et al. The American College of Rheumatology 1990 criteria for the classification of fibromyalgia. Report of the Multicenter Criteria Committee. Arthritis Rheum. 1990;33(2):160–72.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Croft P, Rigby AS, Boswell R, et al. The prevalence of chronic widespread pain in the general population. J Rheumatol. 1993;20:710–3.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Brill S, Ablin JN, Goor-Aryeh I, et al. Prevalence of fibromyalgia syndrome in patients referred to a tertiary pain clinic. J Investig Med. 2012;60:685–8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Aloush V, Ablin JN, Reitblat T, et al. Fibromyalgia in women with ankylosing spondylitis. Rheumatol Int. 2007;27:865–8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Queiroz LP. Worldwide epidemiology of fibromyalgia. Curr Pain Headache Rep. 2013;17:356.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    McLeod JD. Juvenile fibromyalgia syndrome and improved recognition by pediatric primary care providers. J Pediatr Health Care. 2014;28:e9–18.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Schmidt-Wilcke T, Clauw DJ. Fibromyalgia: from pathophysiology to therapy. Nat Rev Rheumatol. 2011;7:518–27.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Kato K, Sullivan PF, Evengård B, et al. A population-based twin study of functional somatic syndromes. Psychol Med. 2009;39:497–505.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Goldenberg DL. Diagnosis and differential diagnosis of fibromyalgia. Am J Med. 2009;122:S14–21.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Vincent A, Lahr BD, Wolfe F, et al. Prevalence of fibromyalgia: a population-based study in Olmsted County, Minnesota, utilizing the Rochester Epidemiology Project. Arthritis Care Res (Hoboken). 2013;65:786–92.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Wolfe F, Clauw DJ, Fitz Charles MA, et al. Fibromyalgia criteria and severity scales for clinical and epidemiological studies: a modification of the ACR preliminary diagnostic criteria for fibromyalgia. J Rheumatol. 2011;38:1113–22.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Macfarlane GJ, Kronisch C, Dean LE, et al. EULAR revised recommendations for the management of fibromyalgia. Ann Rheum Dis. 2016;76(2):318–28. pii: annrheumdis-2016-209724.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Marcus DA, Bernstein C, Rudy TE. Fibromyalgia and headache: an epidemiological study supporting migraine as part of the fibromyalgia syndrome. Clin Rheumatol. 2005;24:595–601.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Wolfe F, Michaud K, Li T, et al. Chronic conditions and health problems in rheumatic diseases: comparisons with rheumatoid arthritis, noninflammatory rheumatic disorders, systemic lupus erythematosus, and fibromyalgia. J Rheumatol. 2010;37:305–15.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Collado A, Gomez E, Coscolla R, et al. Work, family and social environment in patients with Fibromyalgia in Spain: an epidemiological study: EPIFFAC study. BMC Health Serv Res. 2014;14:513.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Haviland MG, Banta JE, Przekop P. Fibromyalgia: prevalence, course, and co-morbidities in hospitalized patients in the United States, 1999–2007. Clin Exp Rheumatol. 2011;29:S79–87.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Weir PT, Harlan GA, Nkoy FL, et al. The incidence of fibromyalgia and its associated comorbidities: a population-based retrospective cohort study based on International Classification of Diseases, 9th Revision codes. J Clin Rheumatol. 2006;12:124–8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Azevedo VF, PaivaEdos S, Felippe LR, et al. Occurrence of fibromyalgia in patients with ankylosing spondylitis. Rev Bras Reumatol. 2010;50:646–50.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Choi BY, Oh HJ, Lee YJ, Song YW. Prevalence and clinical impact of fibromyalgia in patients with primary Sjögren’s syndrome. Clin Exp Rheumatol. 2016;34:S9–13.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Buskila D, Odes LR, Neumann L, et al. Fibromyalgia in inflammatory bowel disease. J Rheumatol. 1999;26:1167–71.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Mork PJ, Vasseljen O, Nilsen TI. Association between physical exercise, body mass index, and risk of fibromyalgia: longitudinal data from the Norwegian Nord-Trøndelag Health Study. Arthritis Care Res (Hoboken). 2010;62:611–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Torresani C, Bellafiore S, De Panfilis G. Chronic urticaria is usually associated with fibromyalgia syndrome. Acta Derm Venereol. 2009;89:389–92.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Frieri M, Argyriou A. Is there a relationship between fibromyalgia and rhinitis? Allergy Asthma Proc. 2012;33:443–9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Isasi C, Colmenero I, Casco F. Fibromyalgia and non-celiac gluten sensitivity: a description with remission of fibromyalgia. Rheumatol Int. 2014;34:1607–12.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Ranzolin A, Brenol JC, Bredemeier M, et al. Association of concomitant fibromyalgia with worse disease activity score in 28 joints, health assessment questionnaire, and short form 36 scores in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Arthritis Rheum. 2009;61:794–800.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Atzeni F, Cazzola M, Benucci M, Franco MD, Salaffi F, Sarzi-Puttini P. Chronic widespread pain in the spectrum of rheumatological diseases. Best Pract Res Clin Rheumatol. 2011;25:165–71.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Wolfe F, Michaud K. Severe rheumatoid arthritis (RA), worse outcomes, comorbid illness, and sociodemographic disadvantage characterize RA patients with fibromyalgia. J Rheumatol. 2004;31:695–700.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Pollard LC, Kingsley GH, Choy EHS, et al. Fibromyalgic rheumatoid arthritis and disease assessment. Rheumatology (Oxford). 2010;49:924–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Branco JC, Bannwarth B, Failde I, et al. Prevalence of fibromyalgia: a survey in five European countries. Semin Arthritis Rheum. 2010;39:448–53.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Lee YC, Lu B, Boire G, Haraoui BP, Hitchon CA, Pope JE, et al. Incidence and predictors of secondary fibromyalgia in an early arthritis cohort. Ann Rheum Dis. 2013;72:949–54.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Coury F, Rossat A, Tebib A, et al. Rheumatoid arthritis and fibromyalgia: a frequent unrelated association complicating disease management. J Rheumatol. 2009;36:58–62.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Leeb BF, Andel I, Sautner J, Nothnagl T, Rintelen B. The DAS28 in rheumatoid arthritis and fibromyalgia patients. Rheumatology. 2004;43:1504–7.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Felson DT, Smolen JS, Wells G, et al. American College of Rheumatology/European League against Rheumatism provisional definition of remission in rheumatoid arthritis for clinical trials. Ann Rheum Dis. 2011;70:404–13.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Cader MZ, Filer A, Hazlehurst J, de Pablo P, Buckley CD, Raza K. Performance of the 2010 ACR/EULAR criteria for rheumatoid arthritis: comparison with 1987 ACR criteria in a very early synovitis cohort. Ann Rheum Dis. 2011;70:949–55.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Fan A, Tournadre A, Pereira B, et al. Performance of Fibromyalgia Rapid Screening Tool (FiRST) to detect fibromyalgia syndrome in rheumatic diseases. Rheumatology (Oxford). 2016;55(10):1746–50. pii: kew244.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Ghib LJ, Tămaș MM, Damian LO, et al. The role of ultrasonography in assessing disease activity in patients with rheumatoid arthritis and associated fibromyalgia. Med Ultrason. 2015;17(3):339–44.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Kool MB, Van Middendorp H, Bijlsma JWJ, Geenen R. Patient and spouse appraisals of health status in rheumatoid arthritis and fibromyalgia: discrepancies and associations with invalidation. Clin Exp Rheumatol. 2011;29(Suppl 69):S63–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Levy O, Segal R, Maslakov I, Markov A, Tishler M, Amit-Vazina M. The impact of concomitant fibromyalgia on visual analogue scales of pain, fatigue and function in patients with various rheumatic disorders. Clin Exp Rheumatol. 2016;34(Suppl 96):S120–4.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Mas AJ, Carmona LM, Valverde M, Ribas B, the EPISER study group. Prevalence and impact of fibromyalgia on function and quality of life in individuals from the general population: results from a nationwide study in Spain. Clin Exp Rheumatol. 2008;26:519–26.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Hughes G, Martinez C, Myon E, et al. The impact of a diagnosis of fibromyalgia on health care resource use by primary care patients in the UK: an observational study based on clinical practice. Arthtitis Rheum. 2006;54:177–83.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Mease PJ, Arnold LM, Bennet R, et al. Identifying the clinical domains of fibromyalgia: contributions from clinician and patient Delphi exercises. Arthritis Rheum. 2008;15:952–60.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Ware J, Sherbourne CD. The MOS 36-item short form health survey (SF-36). 1. Conceptual frame-work and item selection. Med Care. 1992;30:473–81.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Birtane M, Kaan Uzunca K, Tastekin N, et al. The evaluation of quality of life in fibromyalgia syndrome: a comparison with rheumatoid arthritis by using SF-36 Health Survey. Clin Rheumatol. 2007;26:679–84.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Strombeck B, Ekdahl C, Manthorpe R, et al. Health-related quality of life in primary Sjögren’s syndrome, rheumatoid arthritis and fibromyalgia compared to normal population data using SF-36. Scand J Rheumatol. 2000;29:20–8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Salaffi F, Sarzi Puttini P, Girolimetti R, Atzeni F, GaspariniS GW. Health-related quality of life in fibromyalgia patients: a comparison with rheumatoid arthritis patients and the general population using the SF-36 health survey. Clin Exp Rheumatol. 2009;27(Suppl 56):S67–74.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Verbunt JA, Pernot DHFM, Smeets RJEM. Disability and quality of life in patients with fibromyalgia. Health Qual Life Outcomes. 2008;6:8.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Belt NK, Kronholm E, Kauppi MJ. Sleep problems in fibromyalgia and rheumatoid arthritis compared with the general population. Clin Exp Rheumatol. 2009;27:35–41.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Ulus Y, Akyol Y, Tander B, Durmus D, Bilgici A, Kuru O. Sleep quality in fibromyalgia and rheumatoid arthritis: associations with pain, fatigue, depression, and disease activity. Clin Exp Rheumatol. 2011;29(Suppl 61):S92–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Husted JA, Tom BD, Schentag CT, Farewell VT, Gladmann DD. Occurrence and correlates of fatigue in PsA. Ann Rheum Dis. 2009;68:1553–8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Roussou E, Ciurtin C. Clinical overlap between fibromyalgia tender points and enthesitis sites in patients with spondyloarthritis who present with inflammatory back pain. Clin Exp Rheumatol. 2012;30(Suppl 74):S24–30.Google Scholar
  56. 56.
    Almodóvar R, Carmona L, Zarco P, et al. Fibromyalgia in patients with ankylosing spondylitis: prevalence and utility of the measures of activity, function and radiological damage. Clin Exp Rheumatol. 2010;28(Suppl 63):S33–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Mander M, Simpson JM, McLellan A, Walker D, Goodcare JA, Dick WC. Studies with enthesitis index as a method of clinical assessment in ankylosing spondylitis. Ann Rheum Dis. 1987;46:197–202.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Wolfe F, Clauw DJ, Fitzcharles MA, et al. The American College of Rheumatology preliminary diagnostic criteria for fibromyalgia and measurement of symptom severity. Arthritis Care Res (Hoboken). 2010;62(5):600–10.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Mease PJ, Clauw JD, Arnold LM, et al. Fibromyalgia syndrome-OMERACT 7 workshop. J Rheumatol. 2005;32:2270–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Sokoll KB, Helliwell PS. Comparison of disability and quality of life in rheumatoid and psoriatic arthritis. J Rheumatol. 2001;28:1842–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Chandran V, Bhella S, Schentag C, et al. Functional assessment of chronic illness therapy-fatigue scale is valid in patients with psoriatic arthritis. Ann Rheum Dis. 2007;66:936–9.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Blackmore M, Gladman DD, Husted J, et al. Measuring health status in psoriatic arthritis: the Health Assessment Questionnaire and its modification. J Rheumatol. 1995;22:886–93.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Duffy CM, Watanabe Duffy KN, Gladman DD, et al. Utilization of the Arthritis Impact Measurement Scales (AIMS) for patients with psoriatic arthritis. J Rheumatol. 1992;19:1727–32.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Husted J, Gladman DD, Long JA, et al. Validating the SF-36 health questionnaire in patients with psoriatic arthritis. J Rheumatol. 1997;24:511–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Bennet R. The Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire (FIQ): a review of its development, current version, operating characteristics and uses. Clin Exp Rheumatol. 2005;23(Suppl 39):S154–62.Google Scholar
  66. 66.
    Al-AllF AW, Ottewell L, Pullar T. The prevalence and significance of positive antinuclear antibodies in patients with fibromyalgia syndrome: 2–4 years’ follow-up. Clin Rheumatol. 2002;21:472–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Dinerman H, Goldenberg DL, Felson DT. A prospective evaluation of 118 patients with the fibromyalgia syndrome: prevalence of Raynaud’s phenomenon, sicca symptoms, ANA, low complement, and Ig deposition at the dermal-epidermal junction. J Rheumatol. 1986;13:368–73.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Dönmez S, Pamuk ON, Ümit EG, Top MS. Autoimmune rheumatic disease associated symptoms in fibromyalgia patients and their influence on anxiety, depression and somatisation: a comparative study. Clin Exp Rheumatol. 2012;30(Suppl 74):S65–9.Google Scholar
  69. 69.
    Unterman A, Nolte JE, Boaz M, Abady M, Shoenfeld Y, Zandman-Goddard G. Neuropsychiatric syndromes in systemic lupus erythematosus: a meta-analysis. Semin Arthritis Rheum. 2011;41:1–11.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Bachen E, Chesney M, Criswell A. Prevalence of mood and anxiety disorders in women with systemic lupus erythematosus. Arthritis Rheum. 2009;61:822–9.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Palagini L, Carmassi C, Conversano C, et al. Transdiagnostic factors across fibromyalgia and mental disorders: sleep disturbances may play a key role. A clinical review. Clin Exp Rheumatol. 2016;34(Suppl 96):S140–4.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Friedman AW, Tew MB, Ahn C, et al. For the LUMINA Study Group. Lupus. 2003;12:274–9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Middleton G, Mc Farlin J, Lipsky P. The prevalence and clinical impact of fibromyalgia in systemic lupus erythematosus. Arthritis Rheum. 1994;37:1181–8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Handra R, Aggrawal P, Wali JP, Wig N, Dwivedi SN. Fibromyalgia in Indian patients with systemic lupus erythematosus. Lupus. 1998;7:475–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Torrente-Segarra V, Carbonell Abelló J, Castro Oreiro S, Manresa Domínguez JM. Association between fibromyalgia and psychiatric disorders in systemic lupus erythematosus. Clin Exp Rheumatol. 2010;28(Suppl 63):S22–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Torrente-Segarra V, Salman-Monte TC, Rúa-Figueroa I, RELESSER study Group of the Spanish Society of Rheumatology (SER) and the study Group of Systemic Autoimmune Diseases of the SER (EAS-SER), et al. Fibromyalgia prevalence and related factors in a large registry of patients with systemic lupus erythematosus. Clin Exp Rheumatol. 2016;34(Suppl 96):S40–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Waldheim E, Elkan AC, Pettersoson S, et al. Health-related quality of life, fatigue and mood in patients with SLE and high levels of pain compared to controls and patients with low levels of pain. Lupus. 2013;22:1118–27.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Ng WF, Bowman SJ. Primary Sjögren’s syndrome: too dry and too tired. Rheumatology (Oxford). 2010;49:844–53.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Seror R, Ravaud P, Mariette X, et al. EULAR Sjögren’s Syndrome Patient Reported Index (ESSPRI): development of a consensus patient index for primary Sjögren’s syndrome. Ann Rheum Dis. 2011;70:968–72.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Priori R, Iannucelli C, Alessandri C, et al. Fatigue in Sjögren’s syndrome: relationship with fibromyalgia, clinical and biologic features. Clin Exp Rheumatol. 2010;28(Suppl 63):S82–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Barendregt PJ, Arendregt PJ, Visser M, Smets E, et al. Fatigue in primary Sjögren’s syndrome. Ann Rheum Dis. 1998;57:291–5.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Giles I, Isenberg D. Fatigue in primary Sjögren’s syndrome: is there a link with the fibromyalgia syndrome? Ann Rheum Dis. 2000;59:875–8.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Iannuccelli C, Spinelli FR, Guzzo MP, et al. Fatigue and widespread pain in systemic lupus erythematosus and Sjögren’s syndrome: symptoms of inflammatory disease or associated fibromyalgia? Clin Exp Rheumatol. 2012;30(Suppl 74):S117–21.Google Scholar
  84. 84.
    Tovoli F, Giampaolo L, Caio G, et al. Fibromyalgia and coeliac disease: a media hype or an emerging clinical problem? Clin Exp Rheumatol. 2013;31(Suppl 79):S50–2.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    García-Leiva JM, Carrasco JL, Slim M, Calandre EP. Celiac symptoms in patients with fibromyalgia: a cross-sectional study. Rheumatol Int. 2015;35(3):561–7.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Zipser RD, Patel S, Yahaya KZ, Baisch DW, Monarch E. Presentations of adult celiac disease in a nationwide patient support group. Dig Dis Sci. 2003;48:761–4.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Straube S, Andrew MR, Derry S, McQuay HJ. Vitamin D and chronic pain. Pain. 2009;141:10–3.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Daniel D, Pirotta MV. Fibromyalgia- should we be testing and treating for vitamin D deficiency? Aust Fam Physician. 2011;40:712–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Rodrigo L, Blanco I, Bobes J, de Serres FJ. Remarkable prevalence of coeliac disease in patients with irritable bowel syndrome plus fibromyalgia in comparison with those with isolated irritable bowel syndrome: a case-finding study. Arthritis Res Ther. 2013;15:R201.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Sperber AD, Atzmon Y, Neumann L, et al. Fibromyalgia in the irritable bowel syndrome: studies of prevalence and clinical implications. Am J Gastroenterol. 1999;94:3541–6.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Ford AC, Chey WD, Talley NJ, Malhotra A, Spiegel BM, Moayyedi P. Yield of diagnostic tests for celiac disease in individuals with symptoms suggestive of irritable bowel syndrome: systematic review and meta-analysis. Arch Intern Med. 2009;169:651–8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Tsai PS, Fan YC, Huang CJ. Fibromyalgia is associated with coronary heart disease: a population-based cohort study. Reg Anesth Pain Med. 2015;40:37–42.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Haliloğlu S, Carlioglu A, Sahiner E, Karaaslan Y, Kosar A. Mean platelet volume in patients with fibromyalgia. Z Rheumatol. 2014;73:742–5.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Wolfe F, Hassett AL, Walitt B, Michaud K. Mortality in fibromyalgia: a study of 8,186 patients over thirty-five years. Arthritis Care Res (Hoboken). 2011;63:94–101.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Aparicio VA, Segura-Jiménez V, Alvarez-Gallardo IC, et al. Are there differences in quality of life, symptomatology and functional capacity among different obesity classes in women with fibromyalgia? The al-Ándalus project. Rheumatol Int. 2014;34:811–21.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Berger A, Dukes E, Martin S, Edelsberg J, et al. Characteristics and healthcare costs of patients with fibromyalgia syndrome. Int J Clin Pract. 2007;61:1498–508.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Fuller-Thomson E, Nimigon-Young J, Brennenstuhl S. Individuals with fibromyalgia and depression: findings from a nationally representative Canadian survey. Rheumatol Int. 2012;32:853–62.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Spaeth M. Epidemiology, costs, and the economic burden of fibromyalgia. Arthritis Res Ther. 2009;11:117.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Perrot S, Schaefer C, Knight T, Hufstader M, Chandran AB, Zlateva G. Societal and individual burden of illness among fibromyalgia patients in France: association between disease severity and OMERACT core domains. BMC Musculoskelet Disord. 2012;13:22.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Meenagh G, Sakellariou G, Iagnocco A, et al. Ultrasound imaging for the rheumatologist XXXIX. Sonographic assessment of the hip in fibromyalgia. Clin Exp Rheumatol. 2012;30:319–21.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Al Adan HospitalHadiyaKuwait
  2. 2.Rheumatology Division, Rehabilitation DepartmentRehabilitation Clinical HospitalCluj-NapocaRomania

Personalised recommendations