Apoptosis, Autophagy, and Unfolded Protein Response and Cerebellar Development

  • Mohammad Amin Moosavi
  • Marveh Rahmati
  • Niloufar Ashtari
  • Javad Alizadeh
  • Mohammad Hashemi
  • Seyedeh Zahra Bathaei
  • Saeid GhavamiEmail author
Part of the Contemporary Clinical Neuroscience book series (CCNE)


Development is an evolutionary process that is tightly regulated in mammalian species. Several different cascades are involved in different stages of development. Among these mechanisms, apoptosis, autophagy, and unfolded protein response play critical roles in regulation of development by affecting the cell fate. All of these pathways are involved in regulation of cell number via determining the life and death cycles of the cells. In this chapter, we first explain the brief mechanisms that are involved in regulation of apoptosis, autophagy, and unfolded protein response, and later, we briefly describe how these mechanisms play roles in general development. We then discuss the importance of these pathways in regulation of cerebellar development.


Apoptosis Autophagy Endoplasmic reticulum stress Unfolded protein response 



Alzheimer’s disease


Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis


Apoptotic protease activating factor 1


Activating transcription factor 4


Activating transcription factor 6


Autophagy-related proteins


B-cell lymphoma protein 2


Immunoglobulin heavy chain binding protein


Basic leucine zipper protein


Caspase-activated DNase


Caspase recruitment domains


Cysteinyl aspartate proteases


Ceramide kinase-like


Cerebellar granule cells


C/EBP homologous protein


Chaperone-mediated autophagy

Cyt c

Cytochrome c


Death effector domain


Direct IAP binding protein with low pI


Death-inducing signaling complex




External granule layer


Eukaryotic initiation factor 2 alpha


Endoplasmic reticulum


ER-associated protein degradation


ER stress response element


Fas-associated death domain


Granule cell precursors


Granule layer


Granule neuron precursors


Glucose-regulated proteins




Huntington’s disease


Heat shock proteins


Heat shock response


High temperature requirement protein A


Internal granule layer


Inositol-requiring transmembrane kinase/endoribonuclease 1


Microtubule-associated protein light chain 3


Mitochondrial permeability transition


Mammalian target of rapamycin


Naturally occurring neuronal death


Purkinje cell degeneration


Programmed cell death


Parkinson’s disease


Protein disulfide isomerase




Double-stranded RNA (PKR)-activated protein kinase-like eukaryotic initiation factor 2α kinase


Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase


Protein misfolding disorders


Permeability membrane transition


Prion-related diseases


Reactive oxygen species


Second mitochondria-derived activator of caspase


Transforming growth factors


TNF receptor-associated death domain


Unc-51-like kinase


Ventricular zone


X-box binding protein-1


Spliced XBP1


Unspliced XBP1



JA was supported by Research Manitoba studentship. NA was supported by NSERC held by Dr. Hassan Marzban. SG was supported by Health Science Centre Foundation General Operating Grant.


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Mohammad Amin Moosavi
    • 1
  • Marveh Rahmati
    • 2
  • Niloufar Ashtari
    • 3
  • Javad Alizadeh
    • 3
  • Mohammad Hashemi
    • 4
  • Seyedeh Zahra Bathaei
    • 5
  • Saeid Ghavami
    • 3
    • 6
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of Molecular Medicine, Institute of Medical BiotechnologyNational Institute for Genetic Engineering and BiotechnologyTehranIran
  2. 2.Cancer Biology Research Center, Cancer Institute of IranTehran University of Medical SciencesTehranIran
  3. 3.Department of Human Anatomy and Cell ScienceRady College of Medicine, Max Rady College of Medicine, University of ManitobaWinnipegCanada
  4. 4.Department of Clinical Biochemistry, School of MedicineZahedan University of Medical SciencesZahedanIran
  5. 5.Department of Clinical Biochemistry, Faculty of Medical SciencesTarbiat Modares UniversityTehranIran
  6. 6.Health Policy Research CentreShiraz University of Medical SciencesShirazIran

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