Advertisement

Hidden Inequalities of the Expatriate Workforce

  • Maranda Ridgway
Chapter
Part of the Palgrave Explorations in Workplace Stigma book series (PAEWS)

Abstract

This chapter explores the challenges faced by organisations trying to maintain host-country compliance while promoting equality of the Expatriate Workforce. While there is a multitude of different types of migrant worker, and each type faces their own ‘hidden’ inequalities within the global workplace, the focus of this chapter is on expatriate workers. As the number of expatriate workers around the world increases, so does the complexity of ‘hidden’ inequalities as the equality and diversity issues in each country are different. Organisations face conflict when trying to maintain equality of opportunity, which is enforced through legislative frameworks in the home country where no such framework exists in the host country. Coupled with contradictory measures such as nationalisation programmes and a duty of care towards individuals whose protected characteristics may be ostracised in certain regions, the need to navigate such murky waters is becoming ever more apparent. This chapter draws on real-life case examples from organisations operating in the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC), a notoriously expatriate-reliant region, as the volume of expatriate workers leads to such issues being exacerbated.

References

  1. Abalkhail, J.M., and B. Allan. 2015. Women’s career advancement: Mentoring and networking in Saudi Arabia and the UK. Human Resource Development International 18: 153–168.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Adler, N. 1984. Women do not want international careers: And other myths about international management. Organisational Dynamics 13: 66–79.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Al Ariss, A. 2010. Modes of engagement: Migration, self-initiated expatriation, and career development. Career Development International 15: 338–358.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Alhejji, H., E. Ng, T. Garavan, and R. Carbery. 2016. The impact of formal and informal distance on gender equality approaches: The case of a British MNC in Saudi Arabia. Thunderbird International Business Review. https://doi.org/10.1002/tie.21828
  5. Alserhan, B., I. Forstenlechner, and A. Al-Nakeeb. 2009. Employees’ attitudes towards diversity in a non-western context. Employee Relations 32: 42–55.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Al-Waqfi, M., and I. Al-Faki. 2015. Gender-based differences in employment conditions of local and expatriate workers in the GCC connect: Empirical evidence from the United Arab Emirates. International Journal of Manpower 36: 397–415.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Andresen, M., F. Bergdolt, J. Margenfeld, and M. Dickmann. 2014. Addressing international mobility confusion–developing definitions and differentiations for self-initiated and assigned expatriates as well as migrants. The International Journal of Human Resource Management 25: 2295–2318.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Bonache, J., H. Langinier, and C. Zárraga-Oberty. 2016. Antecedents and effects of host country nationals negative stereotyping of corporate expatriates. A social identity analysis. Human Resource Management Review 26: 59–68.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Borstorff, P., B. Cunningham, and L. Clark. 2012. The communication and practice of religious accommodation: Employee perceptions. Journal of Applied Management and Entrepreneurship 17: 24–37.Google Scholar
  10. Bottero, W. 2005. Stratification: Social division and inequality. Oxford: Routledge.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Bradbury-Jones, C., J. Tatlor, and O. Herber. 2014. Vignette development and administration: A framework for protecting research participants. International Journal of Social Research Methodology 17: 427–440.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Branine, M., and D. Pollard. 2010. Human resource management with Islamic management principles: A dialectic for a reverse diffusion in management. Personnel Review 39: 712–727.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Brookfield Global Relocation Services. 2015. Global relocation trends survey report. Woodridge: Brookfield Global Relocation Services.Google Scholar
  14. Brookfields Global Relocation Services. 2016. 2016 global mobility trends. http://globalmobilitytrends.brookfieldgrs.com. Accessed 8 Jan 2017.
  15. Chang, F., H. Prytherch, R. Nesbitt, and A. Wilder-Smith. 2013. HIV-related travel restrictions: Trends and country characteristics. Global Health Action 6: 1–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Cooke, F. 2015. Corporate social responsibility and sustainability through ethical HRM practices. In International human resource management, ed. A. Harzing and A. Pinnington, 87–102. London: Sage.Google Scholar
  17. Doan, A.E., and S. Portillo. 2016. Not a woman, but a soldier: Exploring identity through translocational positionality. Sex Roles 76: 1–14.Google Scholar
  18. Doucerain, M., J. Dere, and A. Ryder. 2013. Travels in hyper-diversity: Multiculturalism and contextual assessment of acculturation. International Journal of Intercultural Relations 37: 686–699.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Ewers, M., and R. Dicce. 2016. Expatriate labour markets in rapidly globalising cities: Reproducing the migrant division of labour in Abu Dhabi and Dubai. Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies 42: 2448–2467.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Fabian, E. 2013. Work and disability. In The Oxford handbook of the psychology of working, ed. F. Blustein, 185–202. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  21. Farcas, D., and M. Gonçalves. 2016. Do three years make a difference? An updated review and analysis of self-initiated expatriation. SpringerPlus 5: 1326.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Farndale, E., M. Biron, D. Briscoe, and S. Raghuram. 2015. A global perspective on diversity and inclusion in work organisations. The International Journal of Human Resource Management 26: 677–687.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Gedro, J. 2010. The lavender ceiling atop the global closet: Human resource development and lesbian expatriates. Human Resource Development Review 9: 385–404.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Gedro, J., R. Mizzi, T.S. Rocco, and J. van Loo. 2013. Going global: Professional mobility and concerns for LGBT workers. Human Resource Development 16: 282–297.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Ghoshal, N., and K. Knight. 2016. Rights in transition: Making legal recognition of transgender people a global priority. Human rights watch world report 2016. http://www.hrw.org. Accessed 13 Nov 2016.
  26. Giorgi, G., F. Montani, J. Fiz-Perez, G. Arcangeli, and N. Mucci. 2016. Expatriates’ multiple fears, from terrorism to working conditions: Development of a model. Frontiers in psychology 7: 1–11.Google Scholar
  27. Griffin, R., and M. Pustay. 2010. International business: A managerial perspective. 6th ed. London: Pearson.Google Scholar
  28. Harrison, E., and S. Michailova. 2012. Working in the Middle East: Western female expatriates’ experiences in the United Arab Emirates. The International Journal of Human Resource Management 23: 625–644.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Haslberger, A., C. Brewster, and T. Hippler. 2013. The dimensions of expatriate adjustment. Human Resource Management 52: 333–351.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Hertog, S. 2014. Arab Gulf states: An assessment of nationalisation policies. http://cadmus.eui.eu. Accessed 8 Jan 2017.
  31. Human Rights Watch. 2015. Vietnam: Positive step for transgender rights. http://www.hrw.org. Accessed 8 Jan 2017.
  32. Hutchings, K., S. Michailova, and E. Harrison. 2013. Neither ghettoed nor cosmopolitan. Management International Review 53: 291–318.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. International Labour Organisation. 2014. Maternity and paternity at work. http://www.ilo.org. Accessed 4 Aug 2016.
  34. ———. 2016a. International labour conference 105th session. http://www.ilo.org. Accessed 4 Aug 2016.
  35. ———. 2016b. Ratifications of C111 – Discrimination (employment and occupation) convention, 1958 (No. 111). http://www.ilo.org. Accessed 29 Oct 2016.
  36. Jamal, M. 2015. The “tiering” of citizenship and residency and the “hierarchization” of migrant communities: The United Arab Emirates in historical context. International Migration Review 49: 601–632.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Kaladchibachi, S., and A. Al-Dhafiri. 2016. Mental health care in Kuwait: Toward a community-based decentralized approach. International Social Work: 1–6. https://doi.org/10.1177/0020872816661403
  38. Känsälä, M., L. Mäkelä, and V. Suutari. 2015. Career coordination strategies among dual career expatriate couples. The International Journal of Human Resource Management 26: 2187–2210.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Khashan, H. 2016. Religious intolerance in the Gulf states. http://www.meforum.org. Accessed 8 Jan 2017.
  40. Khilji, S., E. Murphy, R. Greenwood, and B. Mujtaba. 2014. Plurality within contemporary organisations evidence of complexity of value variations and similarities across religions. Cross Cultural Management 21: 219–244.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. King, R., A. Lulle, D. Sampaio, and J. Vullnetari. 2016. Unpacking the ageing – Migration nexus and challenging the vulnerability trope. Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies 1: 1–17.Google Scholar
  42. Kronfol, N. 2012. Health services to groups with special needs in the Arab world: A review. Eastern Mediterranean Health Journal 18: 1247–1253.Google Scholar
  43. Lauring, J. 2013. International diversity management: Global ideals and local responses. British Journal of Management 24: 211–224.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Leicher, V., and R. Mulder. 2016. Development of vignettes for learning and professional development. Gerontology and Geriatrics Education: 1–17. https://doi.org/10.1080/02701960.2016.1247065
  45. Marsh, D. 2010. The Middle East unveiled. London: How To Books Ltd.Google Scholar
  46. McNulty, Y. 2014. Women as female breadwinners in non-traditional expatriate families: Status-reversal marriages, single parents, split families, and lesbian partnerships. In Research handbook on women in international management, ed. K. Hutchings and S. Michailova, 332–366. Cheltenham: Edward Elgar Publishing Limited.Google Scholar
  47. ———. 2015. Acculturating non-traditional expatriates: A case study of single parent, overseas adoption, split family, and lesbian assignees. International Journal of Intercultural Relations 49: 278–293.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. McPhail, R., Y. McNulty, and K. Hutchings. 2016. Lesbian and gay expatriation: Opportunities, barriers and challenges for global mobility. The International Journal of Human Resource Management 27: 382–406.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Metcalfe, B., and C. Rees. 2010. Gender, globalization and organisation: Exploring power, relations and intersections. Equality, Diversity and Inclusion: An International Journal 29: 5–22.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Office for National Statistics. 2016. Short-term international migration annual report: Mid-2014 estimates. http://www.ons.gov.uk. Accessed 31 Oct 2016.
  51. Ozturk, M., and A. Tatli. 2016. Gender identity inclusion in the workplace: Broadening diversity management research and practice through the case of transgender employees in the UK. The International Journal of Human Resource Management 27: 781–802.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Paisley, V., and M. Tayar. 2016. Lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT) expatriates: An intersectionality perspective. The International Journal of Human Resource Management 27: 766–780.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Romanowski, M., and R. Nasser. 2014. Identity issues: Expatriate professors teaching and researching in Qatar. The International Journal of Higher Education Research 69: 653–671.Google Scholar
  54. Saroglou, V., and A.B. Cohen. 2011. Psychology of culture and religion introduction to the JCCP special issue. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology 42: 1309–1319.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Sonesh, S., and A. DeNisi. 2016. The categorization of expatriates and the support offered by host country nationals. Journal of Global Mobility 4: 18–43.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Song, M. 2004. Introduction: Who’s at the bottom? Examining claims about racial hierarchy. Ethnic and Racial Studies 27: 859–877.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Suutari, V., and C. Brewster. 2000. Making their own way: International experience through self-initiated foreign assignments. Journal of World Business 35: 417–436.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Thomas, D., and M. Peterson. 2014. Cross-cultural management. 3rd ed. London: Sage.Google Scholar
  59. Thompson, N. 2011. Promoting equality. 3rd ed. London: Palgrave.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. ———. 2016. Anti-discriminatory practice. 6th ed. London: Palgrave.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Treviño, L., and K. Nelson. 2011. Managing business ethics. 5th ed. New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  62. Wright, T. 2016. Women’s experience of workplace interactions in male-dominated work: The intersections of gender, sexuality and occupational group. Gender, Work and Organisation 23: 348–362.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Maranda Ridgway
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Human Resource ManagementNottingham Business School, Nottingham Trent UniversityNottinghamUK

Personalised recommendations