Hypertensive Diseases

  • Victoria Danhakl
  • Ruth LandauEmail author


Preeclampsia (PEC) is a multisystem disorder characterized by new-onset hypertension, with or without proteinuria and end-organ dysfunction. Although most PEC pregnancies may be carried to term or near term with good maternal and neonatal outcomes, risks for maternal, fetal/neonatal mortality, or serious morbidity are significant. In addition, women with a history of PEC pregnancy are at increased risk for hypertension, acute coronary events, strokes, thromboembolic, and end-stage kidney failure later in life.


Preeclampsia Early onset Endothelial dysfunction Eclampsia HELLP syndrome Hypertension Proteinuria Thrombocytopenia Spinal anesthesia Magnesium sulfate Labetalol Vasopressors Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) 


  1. 1.
    Al-Safi Z, Imudia AN, Filetti LC, Hobson DT, Bahado-Singh RO, Awonuga AO. Delayed postpartum preeclampsia and eclampsia: demographics, clinical course, and complications. Obstet Gynecol. 2011;118(5):1102–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. Hypertension in pregnancy. Washington DC: American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists; 2013Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Bateman BT, Polley LS. Hypertensive disorders. In: Chestnut DH, Wong CA, Tsen LC, Ngan Kee WD, Beilin Y, Mhyre J, editors. Chestnut’s obstetric anesthesia: principles and practices. 5th ed. Philadelphia: Elsevier; 2014. p. 825–59.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Henke VG, Bateman BT, Leffert LR. Spinal anesthesia in severe preeclampsia. Anesth Analg. 2013;117(3):686–93.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Leffert LR. What’s new in obstetric anesthesia? A focus on preeclampsia. IJOA. 2015;24:264–71.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Magee LA, von Dadelszen P, Stones W, Mathai M. The FIGO textbook of pregnancy hypertension: an evidence-based guide to monitoring, prevention and management. London: The Global Library of Women’s Medicine; 2016.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Norwitz ER, Hsu CD, Repke JT. Acute complications of preeclampsia. Clin Obstet Gynecol. 2002;45(2):308–29.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Ramanathan J, Gill RS, Sibai B. Hypertensive disorders of pregnancy. In: Suresh M, Preston RL, Fernando R, Mason CL, editors. Shnider and Levinson’s anesthesia for obstetrics. Baltimore: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2012. p. 437–61.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Sibai BM, et al. Risk factors for preeclampsia, Abruptio placentae, and adverse neonatal outcomes among women with chronic hypertension. N Engl J Med. 1998;339:667–71.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Chaiworapongsa T, Chaemsaithong P, Yeo L, Romero R. Pre-eclampsia part 1: current understanding of its pathophysiology. Nat Rev Nephrol. 2014;10:466–80.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Anesthesiology, Center for Precision MedicineColumbia University College of Physicians and SurgeonsNew YorkUSA

Personalised recommendations