Chaotic Nature of Eye Movement Signal
The eye movement analysis undertaken in many research is conducted to better understand the biology of the brain and oculomotor system functioning. The studies presented in this paper considered eye movement signal as an output of a nonlinear dynamic system and are concentrated on determining the chaotic behaviour existence. The system nature was examined during a fixation, one of key components of eye movement signal, taking its vertical velocity into account. The results were compared with those obtained in the case of the horizontal direction. This comparison showed that both variables provide the similar representation of the underlying dynamics. In both cases, the analysis revealed the chaotic nature of eye movement for the first 200 ms, just after a stimulus position change. Subsequently, the signal characteristic tended to be the convergent one, however, in some cases, depending on a part of the fixation duration the chaotic behaviour was still observable.
KeywordsEye movement Fixation Nonlinear system analysis Chaotic behavior
The research presented in this paper was partially supported by the Silesian University of Technology Rector’s Pro-Quality Grant 02/020/RGJ17/0103.
- 1.Abarbanel, H.D.I.: Analysis of observed chaotic data. Institute for Nonlinear Science. Springer, New York (1996)Google Scholar
- 3.Astefanoaei, C., Creanga, D., Pretegiani, E., Optican, L., Rufa, A.: Dynamical complexity analysis of saccadic eye movements in two different psychological conditions. Rom. Rep. Phys. 66(4), 1038–1055 (2014)Google Scholar
- 6.Foster, T.E., Ardoin, S.P., Binder, K.S.: Underlying changes in repeated reading: an eye movement study. Sch. Psychol. Rev. 42(2), 140 (2013)Google Scholar
- 9.Goldberg, J.H., Stimson, M.J., Lewenstein, M., Scott, N., Wichansky, A.M.: Eye tracking in web search tasks: design implications. In: Proceedings of the 2002 Symposium on Eye Tracking Research & Applications, ETRA 2002, pp. 51–58. ACM, New York (2002)Google Scholar
- 11.Harezlak, K., Kasprowski, P.: Evaluating quality of dispersion based fixation detection algorithm. In: Czachorski, T., Gelenbe, E., Lent, R. (eds.) Information Sciences and Systems 2014, pp. 97–104. Springer (2014)Google Scholar
- 13.Harezlak, K., Rzeszutek, J., Kasprowski, P.: The eye tracking methods in user interfaces assessment. In: Intelligent Decision Technologies: Proceedings of the 7th KES International Conference on Intelligent Decision Technologies (KES-IDT 2015), pp. 325–335. Springer, Cham (2015)Google Scholar
- 14.Holmqvist, K., Nyström, M., Andersson, R., Dewhurst, R., Jarodzka, H., Van de Weijer, J.: Eye tracking: a comprehensive guide to methods and measures. OUP Oxford (2011)Google Scholar
- 16.Novo, J.: Ober Consulting (2015). http://www.ober-consulting.com/9/lang/1/
- 23.Porterfield, W.: An essay concerning the motions of our eyes. Part I. Of their external motions. Edinb. Med. Essays Obs. 3, 160–263 (1737)Google Scholar
- 25.Salvucci, D.D., Goldberg, J.H.: Identifying fixations and saccades in eye-tracking protocols. In: Proceedings of the 2000 Symposium on Eye Tracking Research & Applications, ETRA 2000, pp. 71–78. ACM, New York (2000)Google Scholar
- 27.Takens, F.: Detecting strange attractors in turbulence. Lecture Notes in Mathematics, vol. 898, p. 366 (1981)Google Scholar
- 28.Vallières, B.R., Chamberland, C., Vachon, F., Tremblay, S.: Insights from eye movement into dynamic decision-making research and usability testing. In: International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction, pp. 169–174. Springer (2013)Google Scholar