Quandaries of Assessment and Accountability

  • Betty Alford
  • Julia Ballenger


The purpose of this chapter is to discuss quandaries that educational administrators may face relative to accountability and assessment in pre-Kindergarten (pK-12) schools as leaders of learning for instructional improvement and capacity building for a culture of assessment and accountability. From the Voices 3 interview data, transcriptions of focus groups that were held with principals throughout the nation were analyzed to discern the challenges in implementation of No Child Left Behind (NCLB) as a lens for considering challenges that may be faced today with the Every Student Succeeds Act (ESSA) requirements. The primary challenges were identified as fitting three themes: consideration of “What’s Best for Students,” facilitating instructional improvement and balancing the press for time with development of a positive culture.


Accountability Assessment Instructional improvement Educational leadership 


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Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Betty Alford
    • 1
  • Julia Ballenger
    • 2
  1. 1.California Polytechnic State UniversityPomonaUSA
  2. 2.Texas A&M University-CommerceCommerceUSA

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