Advertisement

Robots Seen from the Perspectives of Japanese Culture, Philosophy, Ethics and Aida (betweenness)

  • NAKADA Makoto Email author
Chapter
Part of the Tetsugaku Companions to Japanese Philosophy book series (TCJP, volume 1)

Abstract

It is often said that ethical discussion on robots, robotics and HRI (human-robot-interaction) is poor in Japan. However, this is only a superficial response. Although topics such as “autonomy (of robots)” or “responsibility (of robots)” are not “hot” topics, Japan is a country where different views on robots are commonly accepted. These views are often based on cultural and social traditions. In this chapter, we focus on Japanese robots and their philosophical and ethical backgrounds, examining the discussions by the authors such as Nishida Kitarō, Watsuji Tetsurō, Yuasa Yasuo and Ichikawa Hiroshi. In contrast to the Western views based on the separation of the subject and the object or the mind and the body, Japanese authors often talk about “oneness,” i.e. the undifferentiated situation of entities, things and humans in this world. We will try to see how we can understand Japanese robots, their kokoro 心 (mind including human-like sensitivity to things) and their mi 身 (body) by this kind of cultural, ethical and philosophical views based on the authentic state of oneness of the subject and the object, the humans and the rest of entities in the world.

References

  1. Asaro, Peter M. 2007. “Robots and Responsibility from a Legal Perspective.” Paper presented at ICRA’07: 2007 IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation, April 10–14, at Angelicum University, Rome, Italy.Google Scholar
  2. Baron-Cohen, Simon. 1996. “Is there a normal phase of synaesthesia in development?” Psyche 2.27: 223–228.Google Scholar
  3. Faiola, Anthony. 2005. “Humanoids with Attitude.” Washington Post, 11 March 2005. http://www.washingtonpost.com/wpdyn/articles/A25394-2005Mar10.html. Accessed 18 November 2015.
  4. Floridi, Luciano, and J. W. Sanders. 2004. “On the Morality of Artificial Agents.” Minds and Machines 14.3: 349–379.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Hall, Edward T. 1966. The Hidden Dimension: Man’s Use of Space in Public and Private. London: The Bodley Head.Google Scholar
  6. Heidegger, Martin. 1962. Being and Time, translated by John Macquarrie and Edward Robinson. Oxford UK: Blackwell.Google Scholar
  7. Ichikawa, Hiroshi 市川浩. 1992. The Body as Spirit 精神としての身体. Tokyo 東京: Kōdansha 講談社.Google Scholar
  8. Iriki, Atsushi, Michio Tanaka, and Yoshiaki Iwamura. 1996. “Coding of Modified Body Schema during Tool Use by Macaque Postcentral Neurons.” Neuroreport 7.14: 2325–2330.Google Scholar
  9. Kahney, Leander. 2003. “The New Pet Craze: Robovacs.” Wired (online), 11.06(June). http://archive.wired.com/science/discoveries/news/2003/06/59249?currentPage=all. Accessed 6 December 2015.
  10. Kanda, Takayuki 神田崇行. 2008. “The Distance of Communication Robot and Human コミュニケーションロボットと人間との距離.” IPSJ Magazine 情報処理 49.1: 24–29.Google Scholar
  11. Kendon, Adam. 1990. Conducting Interaction: Patterns of Behavior in Focused Encounters. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  12. Kendon, Adam. 2010. “Spacing and Orientation in Co-present Interaction.” In COST 2102 Int. Training School 2009, LNCS 5967, edited by Anna Esposito et al.: 1–15. Berlin: Springer.Google Scholar
  13. Kimura, Bin 木村敏. 1994. Considering the Pathology of Mind 心の病理を考える. Tokyo 東京: Iwanami Shoten 岩波書店.Google Scholar
  14. Kitano, Naho. 2006. “‘Rinri’: An Incitement towards the Existence of Robots in Japanese Society.” International Review of Information Ethics 6: 78–83.Google Scholar
  15. Krebs, Stefan. 2006. “On the Anticipation of Ethical Conflicts between Humans and Robots in Japanese Mangas.” International Review of Information Ethics 6: 63–68.Google Scholar
  16. Kumagai, Takayuki 熊谷高幸. 2011. Japanese as a Visual Language 日本語は映像的である-心理学から見えてくる日本語のしくみ. Tokyo 東京: Shinyosha 新曜社.Google Scholar
  17. Lill, Felix. 2015. Der bessere Lehrer. Die Zeit (online), 24 September 2015. http://www.zeit.de/2015/37/roboter-lehrer-schulen-japan. Accessed 18 November 2015.
  18. Maravita, Angelo, and Atsushi Iriki. 2004. “Tools for the body (schema).” TRENDS in Cognitive Science 8.2: 79–86.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. METI. 2013. Trends in the Market for the Robot Industry in 2012. http://www.meti.go.jp/english/press/2013/0718_02.html. Accessed 18 November 2015.
  20. Nakada, Makoto. 2010. “Different Discussions on Roboethics and Information Ethics Based on Different Cultural Contexts (BA): Discussions on Robots, Informatics and Life in the Information Era in Japanese Bulletin Board Forums and Mass Media.” In Cultural Attitudes towards Technology and Communication 2010, edited by F. Sudweeks, H. Hrachovec, and C. Ess: 300–315. Murdoch: Murdoch University.Google Scholar
  21. Nakada, Makoto. 2013. “How do Japanese people and ‘Western’ people understand the meanings of ‘autonomous’ robots and AI in their lives?” Paper presented at CEPE 2013, July 1–3, at Autónoma University, Lisbon, Portugal (Proceedings of CEPE2013:101–114).Google Scholar
  22. Nakada, Makoto, and Rafael Capurro. 2013. An Intercultural Dialogue on Roboethics. In The Quest for Information Ethics and Roboethics in East and West, vol.1, edited by Makoto Nakada, and Rafael Capurro: 13–22.Google Scholar
  23. NEDO (New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization) 2014. NEDO-Robot-hakusyo 2014 (NEDO-Robot-Whitepaper 2014). http://www.nedo.go.jp/library/robot_hakusyo.html. Accessed 18 November 2015.
  24. Nishida, Kitarō 西田幾多郎. 1935. “The Standpoint of Active Intuition 行為的直観の立場.” In Complete Works of Nishida Kitarō 西田幾多郎全集. Vol. 8: 107–218. Tokyo 東京: Iwanami Shoten 岩波書店.Google Scholar
  25. Nishida, Kitarō 西田幾多郎. 1950. An Inquiry into the Good 善の研究. Tokyo 東京: Iwanami Shoten 岩波書店.Google Scholar
  26. Nishida, Kitarō 西田幾多郎. 1989. “The Logic of Place and the Religious World-view 場所的論理と宗教的世界観.” In Nishida Kitarō Tetsugaku Ronsyu III 西田幾多郎哲学論集 III: 299–397. Tokyo 東京: Iwanami Shoten 岩波書店.Google Scholar
  27. O’Callaghan, Jonathan. 2015. “Bill Gates Says We SHOULD Fear a Robot Uprising: Microsoft Co-founder Says He ‘Agrees with Elon Musk’ on Dangers of AI.” DailyMail (online), 29 January 2015. https://www.dailymail.co.uk/sciencetech/article-2931375/. Accessed 18 November 2015.
  28. Rose, Lacey. 2005. “Nanto City, Japan: Robotic Companions.” Forbes (online), 6 August 2005. http://www.forbes.com/2005/06/08/cx_lr_0608japan.html. Accessed 18 November 2015.
  29. Šabanović, Selma. 2014. “Inventing Japan’s ‘Robotics Culture’: The Repeated Assembly of Science, Technology, and Culture in Social Robotics.” Robot Visions, Social Studies of Science 44: 315–341.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Schodt, Frederik L. 1988. Inside the Robot Kingdom: Japan, Mechatronics, and the Coming Robotopia. Tokyo, New York: Kōdansha International.Google Scholar
  31. Sharkey, Noel. 2007. “Robot wars are a reality: Armies want to give the power of life and death to machines without reason or conscience.” The Guardian, 18 August 2007. http://www.theguardian.com/profile/noelsharkey. Accessed 18 November 2015.
  32. Sullins, John P. 2007. “When Is a Robot a Moral Agent?” Presented at Workshop on Roboethics, ICRA’07: 2007 IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation, April 10–14, at Angelicum University, Rome, Italy (submitted paper to this workshop).Google Scholar
  33. Suzuki, Yutaka, Lisa Galli, Ayaka Ikeda, Shoji Itakura, and Michiteru Kitazaki. 2015. “Measuring empathy for human and robot hand pain using electroencephalography.” Scientific Reports 5, Article number: 15924 (2015). http://www.nature.com/articles/srep15924. Accessed 18 November 2015.
  34. Takanishi, Atsuo. 2007. “Mottainai Thought and Social Acceptability of Robots in Japan” (slides for the talk about this subject). Presented at ICRA’07: 2007 IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation, April 10–14, at Angelicum University, Rome, Italy. www.roboethics.org/icra2007/contributions/…/Takanishi_icra07_ppt.pdf. Accessed 31 December 2012(this site was not available on 5 December, 2015).
  35. Tomiyama, Hidehiko 富山英彦. 2004. “A Study of Anthropology by Tetsurō Watsuji – Focusing on Negative Movement of the Relativity 和辻哲郎の人間学的考察~「個と関係の否定モデル」を手がかりにして~.” Journal of Tokyo University of Information Sciences 東京情報大学研究論集 7.2: 27–44.Google Scholar
  36. Turkle, Sherry. 2007. “Authenticity in the Age of Digital Companions.” Interaction Studies 8.3: 501–517.Google Scholar
  37. Turkle, Sherry. 2011. Alone Together – Why We Expect More from Technology and Less from Each Other. New York: Basic Books.Google Scholar
  38. Ura, Ddaisuke 浦大介, Iribe Masatsugu 入部正継, Osuka Koichi 大須賀公一, and Kinugasa Tetsuya 衣笠哲也. 2015. “Legged Walking Robot Design Applying a Behavior of Passive Dynamic Walking: Joint D.O.F Alignment Design Applying the Adaptive Function 受動的動歩行の性質を利用した脚歩行ロボットの一設計方法-適応的機能を使用した形状と関節自由度構成の設計-.” Transactions of the Society of Instrument and Control Engineers 計測自動制御学会論文集 51.5: 329–335.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Veruggio, Gianmarco, and Fiorella Operto. 2006. “Roboethics: a Bottom-up Interdisciplinary Discourse in the Field of Applied Ethics in Robotics.” International Review of Information Ethics 6: 2–8.Google Scholar
  40. Wagner, Wieland. 2005. “Land der Roboter.” Der Spiegel 6:136–138.Google Scholar
  41. Watsuji, Testurō 和辻哲郎. 1937. Ethics vol. one 倫理学(一). Tokyo 東京: Iwanami Shoten 岩波書店.Google Scholar
  42. Watsuji, Testurō 和辻哲郎. 1979. Climate: Thoughts on the Study of Human Beings 風土-人間学的考察. Tokyo 東京: Iwanami Shoten 岩波書店.Google Scholar
  43. Winnicott, D.W. 1971. Playing and Reality. London: Tavistock Publications.Google Scholar
  44. Yamaoka, Fumitaka, Takayuki Kanda, Hiroshi Ishiguro, and Norihiro Hagita. 2009. “Model of Proximity Control for Information-presenting Robots.” Journal of the Robotics Society of Japan 27.2: 230–238.Google Scholar
  45. Yuasa, Yasuo 湯浅泰雄. 1990. Shintai-ron 身体論. Tokyo 東京: Kōdansha 講談社. The original edition is: Yuasa Yasuo (1987). The Body: Toward an Eastern Mind-Body Theory, edited by Thomas P. Kasulis, translated by Nagatomo Shigenori and Thomas P. Kasulis. New York: State University of New York Press.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Graduate School of Humanities and Social SciencesUniversity of TsukubaTsukubaJapan

Personalised recommendations