Musculoskeletal Modelling and the Physiome Project

  • Justin Fernandez
  • Ju Zhang
  • Vickie Shim
  • Jacob T. Munro
  • Massimo Sartori
  • Thor Besier
  • David G. Lloyd
  • David P. Nickerson
  • Peter Hunter
Part of the CISM International Centre for Mechanical Sciences book series (CISM, volume 578)


This chapter presents developments as part of the International Union of Physiological Sciences (IUPS) Physiome Project. Models are multiscale, multispatial and multiphysics, hence, suitable numerical tools and platforms have been developed to address these challenges for the musculoskeletal system. Firstly, we present modelling ontologies including several markup languages used to facilitate storage, sharing and exchange of numerical models. Secondly, custom software tools, CMISS and CMGUI, are then presented in the development of anatomically based geometrical models. Customisation methods are also presented to morph generic models into subject-specific representations. Thirdly, population based modelling and statistical shape analysis methods are presented as efficient techniques that harness the power of big data and imaging databases. These allow prediction of human anatomy from minimal geometric information. Fourthly, a specific example of our framework is presented in the context of a validated orthopaedic clinical tool used for assessing osteolytic defects around implants. Finally, EMG-informed muscle modelling is presented combined with medical imaging to better understand musculoskeletal injury. The problem of NaF PET CT is used to highlight the problem of patellofemoral pain.



Many people have been involved in the Physiome Project developments described here, but we would like in particular to acknowledge the contributions from Chris Bradley, Richard Christie, Alan Garny, Poul Nielsen and Tommy Yu. The authors would like to thank all members, past and present, of the Auckland Bioengineering Institute (ABI) musculoskeletal group who have contributed to the presented works, especially Dr Kumar Mithraratne and Dr Katja Oberhofer for their work with host mesh fitting. The author would like to thank the Victorian Institute of Forensic Medicine, and J. Hislop–Jambrich, C. David L. Thomas, and J. Clement at the University of Melbourne for providing the femur CT images that made this work possible. The author is grateful for the guidance and assistance of P.M.F. Nielsen, D. Malcolm, H. Sorby, and T. Besier at the Auckland Bioengineering Institute; G.M. Treece and A.H. Gee at the University of Cambridge; and funding from the University of Auckland, the US Food and Drug Administration, and the NZ Ministry of Business, Innovation, and Employment. The authors would like to thank several colleagues who have developed various aspects of the EMG-informed modelling work over the years - Tom Buchanan and Kurt Manal from the University of Delaware; Dario Farina from Georg August University Gottingen, Monica Reggiani at the University of Padua; Claudio Pizzolato from Griffith University, and B.J. Fregly and Jonathan Walter from the University of Florida. We would also like to thank the following colleagues for their contribution to the PET/CT work Andrew Quon, Scott Delp, Garry Gold, Christine Draper and Michael Fredericson at Stanford University; and Gary Beaupr at the VA Palo Alto; Funding for part of this work has been provided by the Royal Society of New Zealand Marsden Fund, National Institutes of Health R01 EB009351-01A2 grant in the USA, and National Health and Medical Research Council grants in Australia.


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Copyright information

© CISM International Centre for Mechanical Sciences 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Justin Fernandez
    • 1
    • 2
  • Ju Zhang
    • 1
  • Vickie Shim
    • 1
  • Jacob T. Munro
    • 3
    • 4
  • Massimo Sartori
    • 5
  • Thor Besier
    • 1
    • 2
  • David G. Lloyd
    • 6
  • David P. Nickerson
    • 1
  • Peter Hunter
    • 1
  1. 1.Auckland Bioengineering Institute, University of AucklandAucklandNew Zealand
  2. 2.Department of Engineering ScienceUniversity of AucklandAucklandNew Zealand
  3. 3.School of MedicineUniversity of AucklandAucklandNew Zealand
  4. 4.Auckland City HospitalUniversity of AucklandAucklandNew Zealand
  5. 5.Department of Neurorehabilitation EngineeringGöttingen UniversityGottingenGermany
  6. 6.Menzies Health Institute Queensland, Griffith UniversityGold CoastAustralia

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