Cascade Heap: Towards Time-Optimal Extractions

  • Maxim Babenko
  • Ignat KolesnichenkoEmail author
  • Ivan Smirnov
Conference paper
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 10304)


Heaps are well-studied fundamental data structures, having myriads of applications, both theoretical and practical.

We consider the problem of designing a heap with an “optimal” extract-min operation. Assuming an arbitrary linear ordering of keys, a heap with n elements typically takes \(O(\log n)\) time to extract the minimum. Extracting all elements faster is impossible as this would violate the \(\varOmega (n \log n)\) bound for comparison-based sorting. It is known, however, that is takes only \(O(n + k \log k)\) time to sort just k smallest elements out of n given, which prompts that there might be a faster heap, whose extract-min performance depends on the number of elements extracted so far.

In this paper we show that is indeed the case. We present a version of heap that performs insert in O(1) time and takes only \(O(\log ^* n + \log k)\) time to carry out the k-th extraction (where \(\log ^*\) denotes the iterated logarithm). All the above bounds are worst-case.


Iterate Logarithm Regular State Complete Binary Tree Insertion State Binary Heap 
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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Maxim Babenko
    • 1
    • 2
  • Ignat Kolesnichenko
    • 2
    • 3
    Email author
  • Ivan Smirnov
    • 3
  1. 1.National Research University Higher School of EconomicsMoscowRussia
  2. 2.Yandex LLCMoscowRussia
  3. 3.Moscow Institute of Physics and TechnologyMoscowRussia

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