Metal Allergy pp 177-196 | Cite as

Metals in Cosmetics

  • Malgorzata M. BrzóskaEmail author
  • Malgorzata Galażyn-Sidorczuk
  • Sylwia Borowska


Cosmetic products contain numerous metals used as pigments, UV filters, preservatives, antiperspirants, and antimicrobial agents, as well as occurring as unintentional pollutants, and therefore represent a significant source of metal exposure. These include among others the metal allergens (e.g., nickel, chromium, and cobalt), as well as metals characterized by a high toxicity (e.g., cadmium, lead, mercury, and arsenic). Allergic skin reactions are the most commonly occurring reactions to metals present in cosmetics, with nickel the most important metal allergen. Cosmetics belong to the group of household products that most often cause allergic reactions, but until now insufficient attention has been paid to the allergenic potential of metals in these preparations. The possible presence of metals in cosmetics, including those capable of inducing allergic reactions, in conjunction with reports of allergy due to the presence of metals at low concentrations (below 1 μg/g), shows that the limits of metals recognized as “unavoidable impurities” should be defined and efforts undertaken to reduce the content of metals in cosmetics. Individuals who are allergic to metals should avoid using products containing them. This chapter provides an overview of cosmetics as a source of exposure to metals, with particular emphasis on metal allergens, to bring more attention to the health threat related to the presence of these metals in cosmetics.


Cosmetics Allergen metals Nickel Chromium Cobalt Allergic contact dermatitis 





















European Union


Food and Drug Administration




























Conflict of Interest

The authors declare that there are no conflicts of interest.


  1. 1.
    BfR (Bundesinstitut für Risikobewertung). Kosmetische Mittel: BfR empfiehlt Schwermetallgehalte über Reinheitsanforderungen der Ausgangsstoffe zu regeln. 2006, Stellungnahme Nr. 025/2006.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    HSNO, Hazardous Substances and New Organisms Act 1996. Cosmetic Products Group Standard 2006 (amended 2012) of New Zealand. Available from: Accessed 29 Sept 2016.
  3. 3.
    MHLW. Ministry of Health Labor and Welfare Notification no. 331 of 2000. Japan. Available from: Accessed 29 Sept 2016.
  4. 4.
    OJEU, Official Journal of the European Union, 2009. Regulation (EC) No 1223/2009 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 30 November 2009 on cosmetic products. Available from: Accessed 29 Sept 2016.
  5. 5.
    Bocca B, Pino A, Alimonti A, Forte G. Toxic metals contained in cosmetics: a status report. Regul Toxicol Pharmacol. 2014;68:447–67.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Borowska S, Brzóska MM. Metals in cosmetics: implications for human health. J Appl Toxicol. 2015;35:551–72.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Ullah H, Noreen S, Fozia, Rehman A, Waseem A, Zubair S, Adnan M, Ahmad I. Comparative study of heavy metals content in cosmetic products of different countries marketed in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. Arab J Chem. 2013;10:10–8. doi:10.1016/j.arabic.2013.09.021.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Goh CL, Ng SK, Kwok SF. Allergic contact dermatitis from nickel in an eye shadow. Contact Dermatitis. 1989;20:380–1.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Oh JE, Lee HJ, Choi YW, Byun JY. Metal allergy in eyelid dermatitis and the evaluation of metal contents in eye shadows. JEADV. 2016;30:1518–21.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Travassos AR, Bruze M, Dahlim J, Goossens A. Allergic contact dermatitis caused by nickel in a green eye pencil. Contact Dermatitis. 2011;65:307–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Verhulst L, Persson L, Zimerson E, Bruze M, Vanden BK, Goossens A. Palpebral eczematous dermatitis caused by nickel in an eye pencil. Contact Dermatitis. 2014;70:247–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Zakaria A, Ho YB. Heavy metals contamination in lipsticks and their associated health risks to lipstick consumers. Regul Toxicol Pharmacol. 2015;73:191–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Ackah M, Osei J, Anim AK, Zakaria N, Nyarko ES, Gyamfi ET, Enti-Brown S, Hanson JEK, Bentil NO, Tulasi D. Status of some metals contained in imported nail polish and lipsticks on the Ghanaian market. Proc Int Acad Ecol Environ Sci. 2015;5:142–7.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Farrag EAM, Abu Sei’leek MHE, Abu Al-Sayyed MI. Study of heavy metals concentration in cosmetics purchased from Jordan markets by ICP-MS and ICP-OES. AES Bioflux. 2015;7:383–94.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Gao P, Liu S, Zhang Z, Meng P, Lin N, Lu B, Cui F, Feng Y, Xing B. Health impact of bioaccessible metal in lip cosmetics to female college students and career women, northeast of China. Environ Pollut. 2015;197:214–20.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Ibrahim SY, Fawzi MM, Saad MG, Rahman SMA. Determination of heavy metals and other toxic ingredients in henna (Lawsonia inermis). J Environ Anal Toxicol. 2016;6:3.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Iwegbue CMA, Bassey FI, Obi G, Tesi GO, Martincigh BS. Concentrations and exposure risks of some metals in facial cosmetics in Nigeria. Toxicol Rep. 2016;3:464–72.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Iwegbue CMA, Bassey FI, Tesi GO, Onyeloni SO, Obi G, Martincigh BS. Safety evaluation of metal exposure from commonly used moisturizing and skin-lightening creams. Regul Toxicol Pharmacol. 2015;71:484–90.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Kaličanin B, Velimirović D. A study of the possible harmful effects of cosmetic beauty products on human health. Biol Trace Elem Res. 2016;170:476–84.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Nouioui MA, Mahjoubi S, Ghorbel A, Yahia MBH, Amira D, Ghorbel H, Hedhili A. Health risk assessment of heavy metals in traditional cosmetics sold in Tunisian local markets. Int Scholar Res Notic. 2016;2016:6296458.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Basketter DA, Angelini G, Ingber A, Kern PS, Menné T. Nickel, chromium and cobalt in consumer products: revisiting safe levels in the new millennium. Contact Dermatitis. 2003;49:1–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Smith VM, Clark SM, Wilkinson M. Allergic contact dermatitis in children: trends in allergens, 10 years on. A retrospective study of 500 children tested between 2005 and 2014 in one UK Centre. Contact Dermatitis. 2015;74:37–43.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    ASEAN, Association of Southeast Asian Nations. (Revision in 2015). 2003. Available from: Accessed 29 Sept 2016.
  24. 24.
    CA, Comunidad Andina. Decision 516. 2002. Available from: Accessed 29 Sept 2016.
  25. 25.
    EC, European Commission, DG Enterprise. Report on the comparative study on cosmetics legislation in the EU and other principal markets with special attention to so-called borderline products. London: Risk & Policy Analysts Limited; 2004.Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    FDA, Food and Drug Administration. Title 21–Food and Drugs. Chapter I–Food and Drug Administration, Department of Health and Human Services. Part 70–Color Additives.Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    FDA, Food and Drug Administration. Title 21–Food and Drugs. Chapter I–Food and Drug Administration, Department of Health and Human Services. Part 74–Listing of Color Additives Subject to Certification.Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    FDA, Food and Drug Administration Title 21–Food and Drugs. Chapter I–Food and Drug Administration, Department of Health and Human Services. Part 80–Color Additives Certification.Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Abdel-Fattah A, Pingitore NE Jr. Low levels of toxic elements in Dead Sea black mud and mud-derived cosmetic products. Environ Geochem Health. 2009;31:487–92.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Arpadjan S, Çelik G, Taşkesen S, Güçer S. Arsenic, cadmium and lead in medicinal herbs and their fractionation. Food Chem Toxicol. 2008;46:2871–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Bilandžić N, Dokić M, Sedak M, Kolanović BS, Varenina I, Končrat A, Rudan N. Determination of trace elements in Croatian floral honey originating from different regions. Food Chem. 2001;128:1160–4.Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Komar D, Lambaša BŽ, Dolenec T, Dolenec M, Vrhovnik P, Rogan ŠN. Potentially toxic elements content in the surficial marine sediment (peloid) from Makirina bay (central Adriatic). E3S Web Conf. 2013;1:16006.Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Başgel S, Erdemoğlu SA. Determination of mineral and trace elements in some medicinal herbs and their infusions consumed in Turkey. Sci Total Environ. 2006;359:82–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Gasser U, Klier B, Kühn AV, Steinhoff B. Current findings on the heavy metal content in herbal drugs. Pharmeur Sci Notes. 2009;1:37–50.Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Pera LL, Saitta M, Di Bella G, Dugo G. Simultaneous determination of Cd (II), Cu (II), Pb (II), and Zn (II) in citrus essential oils by derivative potentiometric stripping analysis. J Agric Food Chem. 2003;51:1125–9.Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Sanna G, Pilo MI, Piu PC, Tapparo A, Seeber R. Determination of heavy metals in honey by anodic stripping voltammetry at microelectrodes. Anal Chim Acta. 2000;415:165–73.Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Tokalioğlu S. Determination of trace elements in commonly consumed medicinal herbs by ICP-MS and multivariate analysis. Food Chem. 2012;134:2504–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Silici S, Uluozlu OD, Tuzen M, Soylak M. Assessment of trace element in rhododendron honeys of Black Sea region. Turkey J Hazard Mater. 2008;156:612–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Karlberg AT, Lidén C, Ehrin E. Colophony in mascara as a cause of eyelid dermatitis. Chemical analyses and patch testing. Acta Derm Venereol. 1991;71:445–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Ma’or Z, Halicz L, Portugal-Cohen M, Russo MZ, Robino F, Vanhaecke T, Rogiers V. Safety evaluation of traces of nickel and chrome in cosmetics: the case of Dead Sea mud. Regul Toxicol Pharmacol. 2015;73:e797–801.Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Mihelčić G, Kniewld G, Ivanišević G, Čepelak R, Mihelčić V, Vdović N. Physico-chemical characteristics of the peloid mud from Morinje Bay (eastern Adriatic coast, Croatia): suitability for use in balneotherapy. Environ Geochem Health. 2012;34:191–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Vreca P, Dolenec T. Geochemical estimation of copper contamination in the healing mud from Makirina Bay, central Adriatic. Environ Int. 2005;31:53–61.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Al-Qutob MA, Alatrash HM, Abol-Ola S. Determination of different heavy metals concentrations in cosmetics purchased from the Palestinian markets by ICP/MS. AES Bioflux. 2013;5:287–93.Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    Issa SYI, Maguid RA, Al Mazroua MK. Determination of toxic contents and metals in different cosmetic products in the Arabian market. J Environ Anal Toxicol. 2016;6:376.Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    Sukender K, Jaspreet S, Sneha D, Munish G. AAS estimation of heavy metals and trace elements in Indian herbal cosmetic preparations. Res J Chem Sci. 2012;2:46–51.Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    Nasirudeen ME, Amaechi AU. Spectrophotometric determination of heavy metals in cosmetics sourced from Kaduna metropolis. Nigeria Sci World J. 2015;10:1–5.Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    Zakari IY, Sadiq AM, Nasiru R, Sadiq U. Radiological and toxic assessment of Nigerian kohl as cosmetic compared with imported kohl cosmetics. Res J Appl Sci Eng Technol. 2014;7:2970–5.Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    CDC, Centers for disease control and prevention. Childhood lead exposure associated with the use of kajal, an eye cosmetic from Afghanistan–Albuquerque, New Mexico, 2013. MMWR Morb Mort Wkly Rep. 2013;62:917–9.Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    Nnorm IC. Trace metals in cosmetic facial talcum powders marketed in Nigeria. Toxicol Environ Chem. 2011;93:1135–48.Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    Nnorm IC, Osibanjo O, Eleke C. Evaluation of human exposure to lead and cadmium from some local Nigerian medicinal preparations. J Appl Sci. 2006;6:2907–11.Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    Popoola OE, Bisi-Johnson MA, Abiodun A, Ibeh OS. Heavy metal content and antimicrobial activities of some naturally occurring facial cosmetics in Nigeria. IJS. 2013;15:637–44.Google Scholar
  52. 52.
    Umar MA, Caleb H. Analysis of metals in some cosmetic products in FCT–Abuja. Nigeria Int J Res Cosmet Sci. 2013;3:14–8.Google Scholar
  53. 53.
    Yebpella GG, Magomya AM, Lawal U, Gauje B, Oko OJ. Assessment of trace metals in imported cosmetics marketed in Nigeria. J Natural Sci Res. 2014;4:11–4.Google Scholar
  54. 54.
    Kang EK, Lee S, Park JH, Joo KM, Jeong HJ, Chang IS. Determination of hexavalent chromium in cosmetic products by ion chromatography and postcolumn derivatization. Contact Dermatitis. 2006;54:244–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Gondal MA, Dastageer MA, Naqvi AA, Isab AA, Maganda YW. Detection of toxic metals (lead and chromium) in talcum powder using laser induced breakdown spectroscopy. Appl Opt. 2012;51:7395–401.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Tosti A, Mattioli D, Misciali C. Green hair caused by copper present in cosmetic plant extracts. Dermatologica. 1991;182:204–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Chauhan AS, Bhadauria R, Singh AK, Lodhi SS, Chaturvedi DK, Tomar VS. Determination of lead and cadmium in cosmetic products. J Chem Pharm Res. 2010;2:92–7.Google Scholar
  58. 58.
    Malakootian M, Pourshaaban MM, Hosseini H. Lead levels in powders of surma (kohl) in Kerman. J Kerman Univ Med Sci. 2010;17:167–74.Google Scholar
  59. 59.
    Kang IJ, Lee MH. Quantification of para-phenylenediamine and heavy metals in henna dye. Contact Dermatitis. 2006;55:26–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    KFDA, Korean Food and Drug Administration. Notification No. 2003–23. Regulation on ingredient designation, specification and test methods of cosmetics of 19.05.2003.Google Scholar
  61. 61.
    Health Canada. Guidance on heavy metal impurities in cosmetics. Available from: eng.php. Accessed 29 Sept 2016.
  62. 62.
    Agência Nacional de Vigilância Sanitária (ANVISA), Regulation no. 44, Official Journal of the Union, Brasília, August 9th, 2012.Google Scholar
  63. 63.
    Agência Nacional de Vigilância Sanitária (ANVISA), Regulation no. 38. Official Journal of the Union, Brasília, March 21th, 2001.Google Scholar
  64. 64.
    Marinovich M, Boraso MS, Testai E, Galli CL. Metals in cosmetics: an a posteriori safety evaluation. Regul Toxicol Pharmacol. 2014;69:416–24.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Iwegbue CMA. Evaluation of human exposure to metals from some popular brands of underarm cosmetics in Nigeria. Regul Toxicol Pharmacol. 2015;72:630–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Gajbhiye S, Sakharwade S. Silver nanoparticles in cosmetics. J Cosmet Dermatol Sci Appl. 2016;6:48–53.Google Scholar
  67. 67.
    Kokura S, Handa O, Takagi T, Ishikawa T, Naito Y, Yoshikawa T. Silver nanoparticles as a safe preservative for use in cosmetics. Nanomed Nanotechnol. 2010;6:570–4.Google Scholar
  68. 68.
    Fage SW, Muris J, Jakobsen SS, Thyssen JP. Titanium: a review on exposure, release, penetration, allergy, epidemiology, and clinical reactivity. Contact Dermatitis. 2016;74:323–45.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    SCCS, Chaudhry Q. Opinion of the scientific committee on consumer safety (SCCS) – revision of the opinion on the safety of the use of titanium dioxide, nano form, in cosmetic products. Regul Toxicol Pharmacol. 2015;73:669–70.Google Scholar
  70. 70.
    Adawe A, Oberg C. Skin-lightening practices and mercury exposure in the Somali community. Minn Med. 2013;96:48–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    McKelvey W, Jeffery N, Clark N, Kass D, Parson PJ. Population-based inorganic mercury biomonitoring and the identification of skin care products as a source of exposure in new York City. Environ Health Perspect. 2011;119:203–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Salama AK. Assessment of metals in cosmetics commonly used in Saudi Arabia. Environ Monit Assess. 2016;188:553.Google Scholar
  73. 73.
    Sin KW, Tsang HF. Large-scale mercury exposure due to a cream cosmetic: community-wide case series. Hong Kong Med J. 2003;9:329–34.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    WHO. Preventing disease through healthy environments. Mercury in skin lightening products. 2011. Accessed 29 Sept 2016.
  75. 75.
    Al-Dayel O, Hefne J, Al-Ajyan T. Human exposure to heavy metals from cosmetics. Orient J Chem. 2011;27:1–11.Google Scholar
  76. 76.
    Alqadami AA, Abdalla MA, AlOthman ZA, Omer K. Application of solid phase extraction on multiwalled carbon nanotubes of some heavy metal ions to analysis of skin whitening cosmetics using ICP-AES. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2013;10:361–74.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Atz VL, Pozebon D. Graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS) methodology for trace element determination in eye shadow and lipstick. At Spectrosc. 2009;30:82–91.Google Scholar
  78. 78.
    Hepp NM, Mindak WR, Gasper JW, Thompson CB, Barrows JN. Survey of cosmetics for arsenic, cadmium, chromium, cobalt, lead, mercury, and nickel content. J Cosmet Sci. 2014;65:125–45.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Karimi G, Ziarati P. Heavy metal contamination of popular nail polishes in Iran. IJT. 2015;9:1290–5.Google Scholar
  80. 80.
    Olabanji IO, Oluyemi EA. Lipsticks and nail polishes: potential sources of heavy metal in human body. IJPRAS. 2014;3:45–51.Google Scholar
  81. 81.
    Sainio EL, Jolanki R, Hakala E, Kanerva L. Metals and arsenic in eye shadows. Contact Dermatitis. 2000;42:5–10.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Alnuwaiser MA. Determination of some trace elements in the lipsticks and their potential health hazards in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Glo Adv Res J Eng Technol Innov. 2016;5:023–33.Google Scholar
  83. 83.
    Alsaffar NM, Hussein HJ. Determination of heavy metals in some cosmetics available in locally markets. OSR-JESTFT. 2014;8:9–12.Google Scholar
  84. 84.
    Amartey EO, Asumadu-Sakyi AB, Adjei CA, Quashie FK, Duodu GO, Bentil NO. Determination of heavy metals concentration in hair pomades on the Ghanaian market using atomic absorption spectrometry technique. Br J Pharmacol Toxicol. 2011;2:192–8.Google Scholar
  85. 85.
    Ayenimo JG, Yusuf AM, Adekunle AS, Makinde OW. Heavy metal exposure from personal care products. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol. 2010;84:8–14.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Batista EF, dos Santos Augusto A, Pereira-Filho ER. Chemometric evaluation of cd, co, Cr, cu, Ni (inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry) and Pb (graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry) concentrations in lipstick samples intended to be used by adults and children. Talanta. 2016;150:206–12.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Chauhan SB, Chandak A, Agrawal SS. Evaluation of heavy metals contamination in marketed lipsticks. Int J Adv Res. 2014;2:257–62.Google Scholar
  88. 88.
    Cristuado A, D’Ilio S, Gallinella B, Mosca A, Majorani C, Violante N, Senofonte O, Morronte A, Petrucci F. Use of potentially harmful skin-lightening products among immigrant women in Rome, Italy: a pilot study. Dermatology. 2013;226:200–6.Google Scholar
  89. 89.
    Faruruwa MD, Bartholomew SP. Study of heavy metal contents in facial cosmetics obtained from open markets and superstores within Kaduna metropolis. Nigeria Am J Chem Appl. 2014;1:27–33.Google Scholar
  90. 90.
    Gondal MA, Seddiqi ZS, Nasr MM, Gondal B. Spectroscopic detection of health hazardous contaminants in lipstick using laser induced breakdown spectroscopy. J Hazard Mater. 2010;175:726–32.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Hussein HJ. Evaluation of the concentration of some heavy metals in hair dyes in Baghdad. Int J Sci Res. 2015;4:687–91.Google Scholar
  92. 92.
    Iwegbue CMA. Safety evaluation of the metals in some brands of nail polish in Nigeria. J Verbr Lebensm. 2016;11:271. doi:10.1007/s00003-016-1027-3.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Khalid A, Bukhari IH, Riaz M, Rehman G, Ain QU, Bokhari TH, Rasool N, Zubair M, Munir S. Determination of lead, cadmium, chromium and nickel in different brands of lipsticks. IJBPAS. 2013;2:1003–9.Google Scholar
  94. 94.
    Liu S, Hammond K, Rojas-Cheatham A. Concentrations and potential health risks of metal in lip products. Environ Health Perspect. 2013;121:705–10.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Mousavi Z, Ziarati P, Shariatdoost A. Determination and safety assessment of lead and cadmium in eye shadows purchased in local market Tehran. J Environ Anal Toxicol. 2013;3:193.Google Scholar
  96. 96.
    Nourmoradi H, Foroghi M, Farhadkhani M, Dastjerdi MV. Assessment of lead and cadmium levels in frequently used cosmetic products in Iran. J Environ Public Health. 2013;2013:962727.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Odukudu FB, Ayenimo JG, Adekunle AS, Yusuf AM, Mamba BB. Safety evaluation of heavy metals exposure from consumer products. Int J Consum Stud. 2014;38:25–34.Google Scholar
  98. 98.
    Omenka SS, Adeyi AA. Heavy metal content of selected personal care products (PCPs) available in Ibadan, Nigeria and their toxic effects. Toxicol Rep. 2016;3:628–35.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Onwordi CT, Onebunne OC, Dorcas WA, Ajani OI. Potentially toxic metals exposure from body creams sold in Lagos, Nigeria. Researcher. 2011;3:30–7.Google Scholar
  100. 100.
    Volpe MG, Nazarro M, Coppola R, Rapuano F, Aquiro RP. Determination and assessments of selected heavy metals in eye shadow cosmetics from China, Italy and USA. Microchem J. 2012;101:65–9.Google Scholar
  101. 101.
    Chan MHM, Cheung RCK, Chan IHS, Lam CWK. An unusual case of mercury intoxication. Br J Dermatol. 2001;144:192–4.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    Al-Saleh I, Al-Enazi S, Shinwari N. Assessment of lead in cosmetic products. Regul Toxicol Pharmacol. 2009;54:105–13.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    Ayenimo JG, Yusuf AM, Doherty WO, Ogunkule A. Iron, lead and nickel in selected consumer products in Nigeria: a potential public health concern. Toxicol Environ Chem. 2010;92:51–9.Google Scholar
  104. 104.
    Barros AI, Silva TV, Ferreira EC, Neto JAG. Determination of lead in eye shadow and blush by high-resolution continuum source graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry employing direct solid sampling. J Braz Chem Soc. 2015;26:140–6.Google Scholar
  105. 105.
    Gunduz S, Akman S. Investigation of lead contents in lipsticks by solid sampling high resolution continuum source electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry. Regul Toxicol Pharmacol. 2013;65:34–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  106. 106.
    Iwegbue CMA, Onyeloni SO, Bassey FI, Tesi G, Martincigh BS. Safety evaluation of metal exposure from commonly used hair dyes and tattoo inks in Nigeria. J Environ Health. 2016;78:26–30.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. 107.
    Nnorm IC, Igwe JC, Oji-Nnorm CG. Trace metal contents of facial (make-up) cosmetics commonly used in Nigeria. Afr J Biotechnol. 2005;4:1133–8.Google Scholar
  108. 108.
    Orisakwe OE, Otaraku JO. Metal concentrations in cosmetics commonly used in Nigeria. Sci World J. 2013;2013:959637.Google Scholar
  109. 109.
    Piccini P, Piecha M, Fortaner TS. European survey on the content of lead in lip products. J Pharm Biomed Anal. 2013;76:225–33.Google Scholar
  110. 110.
    Sharafi K, Fattahi N, Pirsaheb M, Yarmohamadi H, Davil F. Trace determination of lead in lipsticks and hair dyes using microwave-assisted dispersive liquid–liquid microextraction and graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry. Int J Cosmet Sci. 2015;37:489–95.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  111. 111.
    Soares AR, Nascentes CC. Development of a simple method for the determination of lead in lipstick using alkaline solubilization and graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry. Talanta. 2013;105:272–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  112. 112.
    Contado C, Pagnoni A. A new strategy for pressed powder eye shadow analysis: allergenic metal ion content and particle size distribution. Sci Total Environ. 2012;432:173–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  113. 113.
    Corazza M, Baldo F, Pagnoni A, Miscioscia R, Virgili A. Measurement of nickel, cobalt and chromium in toy make-up by atomic absorption spectroscopy. Acta Derm Venereol. 2009;89:130–3.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  114. 114.
    Ekere NR, Ihedioha JN, Oparahozie TI, Ogbuefi-China FI, Ayogu J. Assessment of some heavy metals in facial cosmetic products. J Chem Pharm Res. 2014;6:561–4.Google Scholar
  115. 115.
    Lee SM, Jeong HJ, Chang IS. Simultaneous determination of heavy metals in cosmetic products. J Cosmet Sci. 2008;59:441–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  116. 116.
    Dickenson CA, Woodruff TJ, Stotland NE, Dobraca D, Das R. Elevated mercury levels in pregnant woman linked to skin cream from Mexico. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2013;209:e4–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  117. 117.
    Favaro PC, Bode P, De Nadai Fernandes EA. Trace elements in nail polish as a source of contaminations of nail clippings when used in epidemiological studies. J Radioanal Nucl Chem. 2005;264:61–5.Google Scholar
  118. 118.
    Hwang M, Yoon WK, Kim JY, Son BK, Yang SJ, Yun MO, Choi SS, Jang DD, Yoo TM. Safety assessment of chromium by exposure from cosmetic products. Arch Pharm Res. 2009;32:235–41.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  119. 119.
    Gondal MA, Maganda YW, Dastageer MA, Al-Adel FF, Naqvi AA, Qahtan TF. Detection of carcinogenic chromium in synthetic hair dyes using laser induced breakdown spectroscopy. Appl Opt. 2014;53:1636–43.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  120. 120.
    Oyedeji FO, Hassan GO, Adeleke BB. Hydroquinone and heavy metals levels in cosmetics marketed in Nigeria. Trends Appl Sci Res. 2011;6:622–39.Google Scholar
  121. 121.
    Ciaralli L, Giordano S, Cassino A, Sepe A, Constantini S. Determination of chromium and nickel in commercial foam bath products by ETA-AAS. Ann Ist Super Sanita. 1996;32:381–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  122. 122.
    Lyons G, Roberts H, Palmer A, Matheson M, Nixon R. Hairdressers presenting to an occupational dermatology clinic in Melbourne, Australia. Contact Dermatitis. 2013;68:300–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  123. 123.
    Matsunaga K, Hosokawa K, Suzuki M, Arima Y, Hayakawa R. Occupational allergic contact dermatitis in beauticians. Contact Dermatitis. 1988;18:94–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  124. 124.
    Warshaw EM, Wang MZ, Mathias CG, Maibach HI, Belsito DV, Zug KA, Taylor JS, Zirwas MJ, Fransway AF, Deleo VA, Marks JG Jr, Pratt MD, Storrs FJ, Rietschel RL, Fowler JF Jr, Sasseville D. Occupational contact dermatitis in hairdressers/cosmetologists: retrospective analysis of north American contact dermatitis group data, 1994 to 2010. Dermatitis. 2012;23:258–68.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  125. 125.
    Foulds IS. Facial eczema due to colour pigments in foundation makeup in nickel sensitive patients. Contact Dermatitis. 2006;55(Suppl. 1):11.Google Scholar
  126. 126.
    Hostynek JJ. Factors determining percutaneous metal absorption. Food Chem Toxicol. 2003;41:327–45.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  127. 127.
    Filon FL, Bello D, Cherrie JW, Sleeuwenhoek A, Spaan S, Brouwer DH. Occupational dermal exposure to nanoparticles and nano-enabled products: part I-factors affecting skin absorption. Int J Hyg Environ Health. 2016;219:536–44.Google Scholar
  128. 128.
    Ross-Hansen K, Østergaard O, Tanassi JT, Thyssen JP, Johansen JD, Menné T, Heegaard NH. Filaggrin is a predominant member of the denaturation-resistant nickel-binding proteome of human epidermis. J Invest Dermatol. 2014;134:1164–6.Google Scholar
  129. 129.
    Thyssen JP, Johansen JD, Linneberg A, Menné T, Nielsen NH, Meldgaard M, Szecsi PB, Stender S, Carlsen BC. The association between null mutations in the filaggrin gene and contact sensitization to nickel and other chemicals in the general population. Br J Dermatol. 2010;162:1278–85.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  130. 130.
    Chipinda I, Hettick JM, Siegel PD. Haptenation: chemical reactivity and protein binding. J Allergy. 2011;2011:839682.Google Scholar
  131. 131.
    van Ketel WG, Liem DH. Eyelid dermatitis from nickel contaminated cosmetics. Contact Dermatitis. 1981;7:217.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  132. 132.
    Zemba C, Romaguera C, Vilaplana J. Allergic contact dermatitis from nickel in an eye pencil. Contact Dermatitis. 1992;27:116.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  133. 133.
    Saxena M, Warshaw E, Ahmed DD. Eyelid allergic contact dermatitis to black iron oxide. Am J Contact Dermatitis. 2001;12:38–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  134. 134.
    Zugerman C. Contact dermatitis to yellow iron oxide. Contact Dermatitis. 1985;13:107–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  135. 135.
    Thyssen JP, Linneberg A, Menné T, Nielsen NH, Johansen JD. No association between nickel allergy and reporting cosmetic dermatitis from mascara or eye shadow: a cross-sectional general population study. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol. 2010;24:722–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  136. 136.
    Sipahi H, Charehsaz M, Güngör Z, Erdem O, Soykut B, Akay C, Aydin A. Risk assessment of allergen metals in cosmetic products. J Cosmet Sci. 2015;66:313–23.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  137. 137.
    Benz MR, Lee SH, Kellner R, Döhlemann C, Berweck S. Hyperintense lesions in brain MRI after exposure to a mercuric chloride-containing skin whitening cream. Eur J Pediatr. 2011;170:747–50.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  138. 138.
    CDC, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Mercury exposure among household users and nonusers of skin-lightening creams produced in Mexico–California and Virginia, 2010. MMWR Morb Mort Wkly Rep. 2012;61:33–6.Google Scholar
  139. 139.
    Goswami K. Eye cosmetic “surma”: hidden threats of lead poisoning. Indian J Clin Biochem. 2013;28:71–3.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  140. 140.
    Karagas MR, Choi AL, Oken E, Horvat M, Schoeny R, Kamai E, Lowell W, Grandjean P, Kerrick S. Evidence on human health effects of low-level methylmercury exposure. Environ Health Perspect. 2012;120:799–806.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  141. 141.
    Li SJ, Zhang SH, Chen HP, Zeng CH, Zheng CX, Li LS, Liu ZH. Mercury-induced membranous nephropathy: clinical and pathological features. Clin J Am Soc Nephrol. 2010;5:439–44.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  142. 142.
    Özkaya E, Mirzoyeva L, Ötkür B. Mercury-induced systemic allergic dermatitis caused by “white precipitate” in a skin lightening cream. Contact Dermatitis. 2009;60:61–3.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  143. 143.
    Sommar JN, Svensson MK, Björ BM, Elmståhl SI, Hallmans G, Lundh T, Schön SM, Skerfving S, Bergdahl IA. End-stage renal disease and low level exposure to lead, cadmium and mercury; a population-based, prospective nested case-referent study in Sweden. Environ Health. 2013;12:9.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  144. 144.
    Soo YOY, Chow KM, Lam CWK, Lai FMM, Szeto CC, Chan MHM, Li PKT. A whitened face woman with nephrotic syndrome. Am J Kidney Dis. 2003;41:250–3.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  145. 145.
    Tang HL, Mak YF, Chu KH, Lee W, Fung KS, Chan TYK, Tong KL. Minimal change disease caused by exposure to mercury-containing skin lightening cream: a report of 4 cases. Clin Nephrol. 2013;79:326–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  146. 146.
    Brasch J, Geier J. Patch test results in school children. Results from the information network of departments of dermatology (IVDK) and the German contact dermatitis research group (DKG). Contact Dermatitis. 1997;37:286–93.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  147. 147.
    Bonefeld CM, Nielsen MM, Vennegaard MT, Johansen JD, Geisler C, Thyssen JP. Nickel acts as an adjuvant during cobalt sensitization. Exp Dermatol. 2015;24:229–31.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  148. 148.
    Chave TA, Warin AP. Allergic contact dermatitis from cobalt in a beauty product. Contact Dermatitis. 1999;41:236.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  149. 149.
    Guarneri F, Guarneri C, Cannovo SP. Nail-art and cobalt allergy. Contact Dermatitis. 2010;62:320–1.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  150. 150.
    Danesh M, Murase JE. Titanium dioxide induces eyelid dermatitis in patients allergic to gold. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2015;73:e21.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  151. 151.
    Zhao J, Li L-F. Contact sensitization to cosmetic series of allergens in general population in Beijing. J Cosmet Dermatol. 2013;13:68–71.Google Scholar
  152. 152.
    Amry MA, Al-Saikhan F, Ayoubi A. Toxic effect of cadmium found in eyeliner to the eye of a 21 years old Saudi woman: a case report. Saudi Pharm J. 2011;19:269–72.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  153. 153.
    Guillard O, Fauconneau B, Olichon D, Dedieu G, Deloncle R. Hyperaluminemia in a woman using an aluminium-containing antiperspirant for 4 years. Am J Med. 2004;117:956–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  154. 154.
    Sappino AP, Buser R, Lesne L, Gimelli S, Béna F, Belin D, Mandriota SJ. Aluminium chloride promotes anchorage-independent growth in human mammary epithelial cells. J Appl Toxicol. 2012;32:233–43.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  155. 155.
    SCCS, Rousselle C. Opinion of the scientific committee on consumer safety (SCCS) - revision of the opinion on the safety of aluminium in cosmetic products. Regul Toxicol Pharmacol. 2015;73:1005–6.Google Scholar
  156. 156.
    Exley C, Vickers T. Elevated brain aluminium and early onset Alzheimer’s disease in an individual occupationally exposed to aluminium: a case report. J Med Case Rep. 2014;8:41.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  157. 157.
    Darbre PD. Underarm cosmetics and breast cancer. J Appl Toxicol. 2003;23:89–95.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Malgorzata M. Brzóska
    • 1
    Email author
  • Malgorzata Galażyn-Sidorczuk
    • 1
  • Sylwia Borowska
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of ToxicologyMedical University of BialystokBialystokPoland

Personalised recommendations