Modeling and Querying Greek Legislation Using Semantic Web Technologies

  • Ilias Chalkidis
  • Charalampos Nikolaou
  • Panagiotis Soursos
  • Manolis Koubarakis
Conference paper
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 10249)

Abstract

In this work, we study how legislation can be published as open data using semantic web technologies. We focus on Greek legislation and show how it can be modeled using ontologies expressed in OWL and RDF, and queried using SPARQL. To demonstrate the applicability and usefulness of our approach, we develop a web application, called Nomothesia, which makes Greek legislation easily accessible to the public. Nomothesia offers advanced services for retrieving and querying Greek legislation and is intended for citizens through intuitive presentational views and search interfaces, but also for application developers that would like to consume content through two web services: a SPARQL endpoint and a RESTful API. Opening up legislation in this way is a great leap towards making governments accountable to citizens and increasing transparency.

Keywords

Legislative knowledge representation Linked Open Data Public services CEN MetaLex European Legislation Identifier 

References

  1. 1.
    Athan, T., Governatori, G., Palmirani, M., Paschke, A., Wyner, A.Z.: LegalRuleML: design principles and foundations. In: Faber, W., Paschke, A. (eds.) Reasoning Web 2015. LNCS, vol. 9203, pp. 151–188. Springer, Cham (2015). doi:10.1007/978-3-319-21768-0_6 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Barabucci, G., Cervone, L., Palmirani, M., Peroni, S., Vitali, F.: Multi-layer markup and ontological structures in Akoma Ntoso. In: Casanovas, P., Pagallo, U., Sartor, G., Ajani, G. (eds.) AICOL -2009. LNCS (LNAI), vol. 6237, pp. 133–149. Springer, Heidelberg (2010). doi:10.1007/978-3-642-16524-5_9 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Boer, A., Hoekstra, R., Winkels, R., van Engers, T., Willaert, F.: \(^{META}lex\): legislation in XML. In: JURIX: The Fifteenth Annual Conference, London (2002)Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Boer, A., Winkels, R., van Engers, T., de Maat, E.: Time and versions in \(^{META}lex\) XML. In: Proceeding of the Workshop on Legislative XML, Kobaek Strand (2004)Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Casanovas, P., Palmirani, M., Peroni, S., van Engers, T.M., Vitali, F.: Semantic web for the legal domain: the next step. Semant. Web 7(3), 213–227 (2016)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    ELI Task Force. ELI - A technical implementation guide (2015)Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    E. C. for Standardization (CEN). CEN Workshop Agreement: Metalex (Open XML Interchange Format for Legal and Legislative Resources). Technical report (2006)Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Francesconi, E., Küster, M.W., Gratz, P., Thelen, S.: The ontology-based approach of the publications office of the EU for document accessibility and open data services. In: Kő, A., Francesconi, E. (eds.) EGOVIS 2015. LNCS, vol. 9265, pp. 29–39. Springer, Cham (2015). doi:10.1007/978-3-319-22389-6_3 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Frosterus, M., Tuominen, J., Wahlroos, M., Hyvönen, E.: The finnish law as a linked data service. In: Cimiano, P., Fernández, M., Lopez, V., Schlobach, S., Völker, J. (eds.) ESWC 2013. LNCS, vol. 7955, pp. 289–290. Springer, Heidelberg (2013). doi:10.1007/978-3-642-41242-4_46 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Hallo Carrasco, M., Martínez-González, M.M., De La Fuente Redondo, P.: Data models for version management of legislative documents. J. Inf. Sci. 39(4), 557–572 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Hoekstra, R.: The MetaLex document server – legal documents as versioned linked data. In: Aroyo, L., Welty, C., Alani, H., Taylor, J., Bernstein, A., Kagal, L., Noy, N., Blomqvist, E. (eds.) ISWC 2011. LNCS, vol. 7032, pp. 128–143. Springer, Heidelberg (2011). doi:10.1007/978-3-642-25093-4_9 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Hoekstra, R., Breuker, J., Di Bello, M., Boer, A.: LKIF core: principled ontology development for the legal domain. In: Proceedings of the 2009 Conference on Law, Ontologies and the Semantic Web: Channelling the Legal Information Flood, Amsterdam, The Netherlands, pp. 21–52. IOS Press (2009)Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Van Opijnen, M.: European case law identifier: indispensable asset for legal Information retrieval. In: Biasiotti, M.A., Faro, S. (eds.) From Information to Knowledge. Frontiers in Artificial Intelligence and Applications, vol. 236, pp. 91–103. IOS Press (2011). doi:10.3233/978-1-60750-988-2-91. ISBN: 978-1-60750-987-5
  14. 14.
    Palmirani, M., Vitali, F.: Akoma-Ntoso for legal documents. In: Sartor, G., Palmirani, M., Francesconi, E., Biasiotti, M.A. (eds.) Legislative XML for the Semantic Web. Law, Governance and Technology Series, vol. 4, pp. 75–100. Springer, Heidelberg (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Archer, P., Goedertier, S., Loutas, N.: Study on persistent URIs, with identification of best practices and recommendations on the topic for the MSs and the EC (2012)Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    PwC EU Services. Case study: How Linked Data is transforming eGoverment (2013)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ilias Chalkidis
    • 1
  • Charalampos Nikolaou
    • 2
  • Panagiotis Soursos
    • 1
  • Manolis Koubarakis
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Informatics and TelecommunicationsNational and Kapodistrian University of AthensAthensGreece
  2. 2.Department of Computer ScienceUniversity of OxfordOxfordUK

Personalised recommendations