Update in Pediatric Oncology: Section B—Solid Tumors of Childhood

  • Allison F. O’NeillEmail author


The care of pediatric patients with solid tumors is complex given the tissues and organs affected by disease, the multidisciplinary nature to clinical decision-making, treatment toxicities, and the complex medical and psychosocial care required during and in the aftermath of treatment. Therapeutic regimens are selected on the basis of patient risk-stratification, which for many tumors is tailored to account for disease histology, extent of spread, and in some cases molecular profile. Treatment considerations focus on the primary tumor (i.e. local control) as well as metastatic or microscopic circulating disease (i.e. systemic therapy). Local control can consist of surgery, radiotherapy, or a combination of the two. “Neoadjuvant” treatment is the term given to systemic agents administered prior to surgery with the term “adjuvant” assigned to treatment given post-operatively. Over the last decade, goals of therapy have evolved to maintain excellent outcomes for patients with low-risk disease, while reducing overall therapy, minimizing toxicity, and improving outcomes for patients with high-risk disease through treatment intensification. In the era of personalized medicine and genomic tumor profiling, our understanding of the molecular drivers of disease as well as targeted approaches to therapy continues to improve. The goals of this chapter are to focus on the epidemiology, pathophysiology, presenting symptoms, work-up, and standard treatment for the most common extracranial solid tumors (focusing predominantly on the North American, Children’s Oncology Group approach) while highlighting recent advances in therapy and overall outcomes.


Solid tumors Childhood Treatment Advances 


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© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Dana-Farber Cancer InstituteMassachusettsUSA

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