The Walkability Planning Support System: An Evidence-Based Tool to Design Healthy Communities

  • Claire Boulange
  • Chris Pettit
  • Billie Giles-Corti
Chapter

Abstract

A major challenge for all cities is to reconcile growth with cultural, social and environmental considerations, along with connecting urban design with opportunities for health and wellbeing. Planning Support Systems (PSSs) can facilitate future planning and foster collaboration between researchers and urban planners in promoting healthy built environments. The Walkability PSS was developed specially for that purpose. This chapter presents an evaluation of the Walkability PSS, a PSS for building planning scenarios and assessing their impacts on walking behaviours. The evaluation was conducted in collaboration with a group of local urban planners. The study results show that the Walkability PSS could support planners in several situations including testing and comparing planning scenarios for greenfield and brownfield areas, conducting consultation and/or workshops with various stakeholders and making decisions about the provision of new infrastructure.

Keywords

Planning Support System Walkability Healthy cities Participatory planning Co-design 

References

  1. Arciniegas, G., Geertman, S., & de Kroes, J. (2013). Using MapTable® to learn about sustainable urban development. In S. Geertman, F. Toppen, & J. Stillwell (Eds.). Planning support systems for sustainable urban development Heodelberg: Springer-Verlag, pp. 167–186. Google Scholar
  2. Badland, H., & Schofield, G. (2005). The built environment and transport-related physical activity: What we do and do not know. Journal of Physical Activity and Health, 2(4), 433–442.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Christian, H., Bull, F., Middleton, N., Knuiman, M., Divitini, M., Hooper, P., Amarasinghe, A., & Giles-Corti, B. (2011). How important is the land use mix measure in understanding walking behaviour? Results from the RESIDE study. International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity, 8(55), doi:10.1186/1479-5868-1188-1155.
  4. Creutzig, F., Baiocchi, G., Bierkandt, R., Pichler, P.-P., & Seto, K. C. (2015). Global typology of urban energy use and potentials for an urbanization mitigation wedge. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 112(20), 6283–6288.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Eichinger, M., Titze, S., Haditsch, B., Dorner, T. E., & Stronegger, W. J. (2015). How are physical activity behaviors and cardiovascular risk factors associated with characteristics of the built and social residential environment? PLoS ONE, 10(6), e0126010.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Frank, L. D., Sallis, J. F., Conway, T. L., Chapman, J. E., Saelens, B. E., & Bachman, W. (2006). Many pathways from land use to health: Associations between neighborhood walkability and active transportation, body mass index, and air quality. Journal of the American Planning Association, 72(1), 75–87.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Geertman, S., & Stillwell, J. (2004). Planning support systems: An inventory of current practice. Computers, Environment and Urban Systems, 28(4), 291–310.Google Scholar
  8. Goodspeed, R. (2016). Sketching and learning: A planning support system field study. Environment and Planning B: Planning and Design, 43(3), 444–463.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Hopkins, L. D., Ramanathan, R., & Pallathucheril, V. G. (2004). Interface for a sketch-planning workbench. Computers, Environment and Urban Systems, 28(6), 653–666.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Lowe, M., Boulange, C., & Giles-Corti, B. (2014). Urban design and health: Progress to date and future challenges. Health Promotion Journal of Australia, 25(1), 14–18.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Pelzer, P., Arciniegas, G., Geertman, S., & Lenferink, S. (2015). Planning support systems and task-technology fit: A comparative case study. Applied Spatial Analysis and Policy, 8(2), 155–175.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Pelzer, P., Geertman, S., van der Heijden, R., & Rouwette, E. (2014). The added value of planning support systems: A practitioner’s perspective. Computers, Environment and Urban Systems, 48, 16–27.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Saelens, B. E., Sallis, J. F., & Frank, L. D. (2003). Environmental correlates of walking and cycling: Findings from the transportation, urban design, and planning literatures. Annals of Behavioral Medicine, 25(2), 80–91.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Sallis, J. F., Cerin, E., Conway, T. L., Adams, M. A., Frank, L. D., Pratt, M., et al. (2016). Physical activity in relation to urban environments in 14 cities worldwide: A cross-sectional study. The Lancet, 387(10034), 2207–2217.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. State Government Victoria (2014). Plan Melbourne. Metropolitan planning strategy 2014. Melbourne: State Government Victoria.Google Scholar
  16. Ulmer, J. M., Chapman, J. E., Kershaw, S. E., Campbell, M., & Frank, L. D. (2015). Application of an evidence-based tool to evaluate health impacts of changes to the built environment. Canadian Journal of Public Health, 106(1 Suppl 1), eS26–34, doi:10.17269/cjph.106.4338.Google Scholar
  17. Van Dyck, D., Cardon, G., Deforche, B., Owen, N., & De Bourdeaudhuij, I. (2011). Relationships between neighborhood walkability and adults’ physical activity: How important is residential self-selection? Health Place, 17(4), 1011–1014.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Vonk, G., Geertman, S., & Schot, P. (2005). Bottlenecks blocking widespread usage of planning support systems. Environment and planning A, 37(5), 909–924.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Vonk, G., Geertman, S., & Schot, P. (2007). A SWOT analysis of planning support systems. Environment and Planning A, 39(7), 1699–1714.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Waddell, P. (2011). Integrated land use and transportation planning and modelling: Addressing challenges in research and practice. Transport Reviews, 31(2), 209–229.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Wilkinson, P., Smith, K. R., Beevers, S., Tonne, C., & Oreszczyn, T. (2007). Energy, energy efficiency, and the built environment. The lancet, 370(9593), 1175–1187.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Wong, F., Stevens, D., O’Connor-Duffany, K., Siegel, K., & Gao, Y. (2011). Community health environment scan survey (CHESS): A novel tool that captures the impact of the built environment on lifestyle factors. Global Health Action, 4, doi:10.3402/gha.v4i0.5276.
  23. World Health Organization. (1986). Ottawa charter for health promotion: First international conference on health promotion, Ottawa, 21 November 1986 (International Conference on Health Promotion). Geneva: World Health Organization.Google Scholar
  24. World Health Organization. (2010). Hidden cities: Unmasking and overcoming health inequities in urban settings. Geneva: World Health Organization.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Claire Boulange
    • 1
  • Chris Pettit
    • 2
  • Billie Giles-Corti
    • 1
  1. 1.Centre for Urban Research, Healthy Liveable Cities Research GroupRMIT UniversityMelbourneAustralia
  2. 2.City Futures Research CentreUNSWSydneyAustralia

Personalised recommendations