Improvement of Grapevine Planting Stock Through Sanitary Selection and Pathogen Elimination

  • D. A. GolinoEmail author
  • M. Fuchs
  • S. Sim
  • K. Farrar
  • G. P. Martelli


Sanitary selection is the most economic, prophylactic strategy to reduce the presence of viruses in propagation material and limit their prevalence in newly established vineyards through the production of clean stocks from which high-quality planting material is derived. The selection of clean stock requires efficient therapy methodologies and rigorous screening of elite accessions of scion and rootstock material for economically important viruses. Several therapeutic methodologies have been developed to sanitize infected accessions, among which microshoot tip culture is one of the most commonly employed for its effectiveness, ease of implementation, and reduced potential to regenerate off-type vines. Efforts at clean plant centers throughout the world to select and produce clean stocks are contributing directly to increasing the quality of the planting material, augmenting the profitability of vineyards, and sustaining the development of the grape and wine industry.


Clean stock Disease Economic value Grapevine Microshoot tip culture Sanitary selection Therapeutics Virus 


  1. Alley, L., and D. Golino. 2000. The origins of the grape program at Foundation Plant Materials Service. American Journal of Enology and Viticulture 51: 222–230.Google Scholar
  2. Anonymous. 2006. Report for New Zealand Winegrowers: The economic effects and financial impact of GLRaV3.Google Scholar
  3. ———. 2015. New Zealand Winegrowers fact sheet: NZVE103. What are the commercial costs associated with leafroll 3?Google Scholar
  4. Atallah, S.S., M.I. Gómez, M.F. Fuchs, and T.E. Martinson. 2012. Economic impact of grapevine leafroll disease on Vitis vinifera cv. Cabernet franc in Finger Lakes vineyards of New York. American Journal of Enology and Viticulture 63: 73–79.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Atallah, S.S., M.I. Gómez, J.M. Conrad, and J.P. Nyrop. 2014. A plant-level, spatial, bioeconomic model of plant disease diffusion and control: Grapevine leafroll disease. American Journal of Agricultural Economics 97: 199–218.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Audeguin, L. 2016. IFV: A network service for the wine industry. Presentation.Google Scholar
  7. Baránek, Miroslav, Jana Raddová, Bretislav Krizan, and Miroslav Pidra. 2009. Genetic changes in grapevine genomes after stress induced by in vitro cultivation, thermotherapy and virus infection, as revealed by AFLP. Genetics and Molecular Biology 32 (4): 834–839.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  8. Barlass, M., K.G.M. Skene, R.C. Woodham, and L.R. Krake. 1982. Regeneration of virus-free grapevines using in vitro apical culture. The Annals of Applied Biology 101: 291–295.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Bayati, Sh., M. Shams-Bakhsh, and A. Moieni. 2011. Elimination of Grapevine virus A (GVA) by cryotherapy and electrotherapy. Journal of Agricultural Science and Technology 13: 443–450.Google Scholar
  10. Boidron, R. 1995. Clonal selection in France. Methods, organization, and use. In: Proceeding of the international symposium on clonal selection, 1–7. Portland: ASEV.Google Scholar
  11. Bouquet, A., and L. Torregrosa. 2003. Micropropagation of the grapevine (Vitis spp.). In Micropropagation of Woody trees and fruits, Forestry sciences, 75, ed. S.M. Jain and K. Ishii, 319–352. Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Christensen, L.P., D.A. Golino, and M.M. Moriyam. 1995. Comparison of registered selections of French Colombard and Chenin blanc with and without thermotherapy. ASEV international symposium on clonal selection, City, State, USA, 111–113.Google Scholar
  13. Deloire, A., M. Charpentier, G. Berlioz, A. Colin, and G. Gimonnet. 1995. Micropropagation of grapevine: Results of 10 years of experiments in the champagne vineyard and results of the first vinifications. American Journal of Enology and Viticulture 46: 571–578.Google Scholar
  14. EPPO. 2001. Nursery requirements. EPPO Bulletin 31: 441–444.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. ———. 2008. Pathogen-tested material of grapevine varieties and rootstocks. EPPO Bulletin 38: 422–429.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Fuller, K.B., J.M. Alston, and D.A. Golino. 2015. The economic benefits from virus screening: A case study of grapevine leafroll in the North Coast of California. American Journal of Enology and Viticulture 66: 112–119.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Gifford, E.M., and W.B. Hewitt. 1961. The use of heat therapy and in vitro shoot tip culture to eliminate fanleaf virus from the grapevine. American Journal of Enology and Viticulture 12: 129–130.Google Scholar
  18. Goheen, A.C. 1989. Virus diseases and grapevine selection. American Journal of Enology and Viticulture 40: 67–72.Google Scholar
  19. Goheen, A.C., and C.F. Luhn. 1973. Heat inactivation of viruses in grapes. Rivista di Patologia Vegetale. 9: 287–289.Google Scholar
  20. Goheen, A.C., C.F. Luhn, and W.B. Hewitt. 1965. Inactivation of grapevine viruses in vivo. Proceedings international conference virus vector perennial hosts, Davis, CA, 255–265.Google Scholar
  21. Golino, D.A., S.T. Sim, A. Bereczky, and A. Rowhani. 2000. The use of shoot tip culture in foundation plant materials service programs. Proc. Int. Plant Propagation Soc. 50: 568–573.Google Scholar
  22. Grenan, S. 1984. Polymorphisme foliaire consécutif à la culture in vitro de Vitis vinifera L. Vitis 23: 159–174.Google Scholar
  23. Grenan, S., A. Bonnet, and R. Boidron. 2000. Results and thoughts on 35 years of sanitary selection in France. Proc. VII Int’l Symp on grapevine genetics and breeding. Acta Horticulturae 528: 713–721.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Gribaudo, I., F. Mannini, A. Lisa, and D. Cuozzo. 2000. Phenotypical modifications of micropropagated grapevines. Acta Horticulturae 530: 231–236.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Gribaudo, I., G. Gambino, D. Cuozzo, and F. Mannini. 2006. Attempts to eliminate Grapevine Rupestris stem pitting-associated virus from grapevine clones. Journal of Plant Pathology 88: 293–298.Google Scholar
  26. Gribaudo, I., D. Torello Marinoni, G. Gambino, F. Mannini, A. Akkak, and R. Botta. 2009. Assessment of genetic fidelity in regenerants from two Vitis vinifera cultivars. Acta Horticulturae 827: 131–136.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Guta, I.C., E.C. Buciumeanu, R.N. Gheorghe, and A. Teodorescu. 2010. Solutions to eliminate grapevine leafroll associated virus serotype 1+3 from V. vinifera L. cv. Ranâi Magaraci. Romanian Biotechnological Letters 15 No.1. Supplement.Google Scholar
  28. Guta, I.C., E.C. Buciumeanu, and E. Visoiu. 2014. Elimination of Grapevine fleck virus by in vitro chemotherapy. Not Bot Horti Agrobo 42: 115–118.Google Scholar
  29. Hewitt, W.B., 1954. Some virus and virus-like diseases of grapevines. The Bulletin, Department of Agriculture, State of California, XLIII, 47–64.Google Scholar
  30. Kassanis, B. 1950. Heat inactivation of leaf-roll virus in potato tubers. Applied Biology 37: 339–341.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Kunkel, L.O. 1936. Heat treatments for the cure of yellows and other virus diseases of peach. Phytopathology 26: 809–830.Google Scholar
  32. La Notte, P., C. Pirolo, G. Bottalico, A. Campanale, and V. Savino. 2006. Sanitary status and sanitation of local germplasm in southern Italy. Extended abstracts 15th Meeting ICVG, Stellenbosch, Sourth Africa, 3–7 April 2006, 114–115.Google Scholar
  33. Leva A.R., R. Petruccelli, and L.M.R. Rinaldi. 2012. Somaclonal variation in tissue culture: A case study with olive, recent advances in plant in vitro culture, Dr. Annarita Leva (Ed.), ISBN: 978-953-51-0787-3, InTech, DOI:  10.5772/50367. Available from:
  34. Maliogka, V.I., F.G. Skiada, E.P. Eleftheriou, and N.I. Katis. 2009. Elimination of a new ampelovirus (GLRaV-Pr) and Grapevine rupestris stem pitting associated virus (GRSPaV) from two Vitis vinifera cultivars combining in vitro thermotherapy with shoot tip culture. Scientia Horticulturae 123: 280–282.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Maliogka, V.I., G.P. Martelli, M. Fuchs, and N.I. Katis. 2015. Control of viruses infecting grapevine. Advances in Virus Research 91: 176–227.Google Scholar
  36. Mannini, F. 1995. Grapevine clonal selection in Piedmont (Northwest Italy): Focus on Nebbiolo and Barbera. In Proceedings of the international symposium on clonal selection, 20–32. Portland: ASEV.Google Scholar
  37. ———. 2000. Clonal selection in grapevine: interactions between genetic and sanitary strategies to improve propagation material. VII International Symposium on Grapevine. Genetics and Breeding. 528: 703–712.Google Scholar
  38. Martelli, G.P. 1992. Infectious diseases and certification of grapevines. Proceedings of the Mediterranean Network on Grapevine Closteroviruses. 1997: 1985–1997.Google Scholar
  39. Martinez, M.C., and J.L.G. Mantilla. 1995. Morphological and yield comparison between Vitis vinifera L. cv. Albariño grown from cuttings and from in vitro propagation. Amer. J. Enol. Viticult. 46: 195–203.Google Scholar
  40. Monette, P.L. 1988. Grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.), biotechnology in agriculture and forestry, Vol.6, Crops II. Bajaj Y.P.S. ed. 6: 3–37. Berlin/Heidelberg: Springer.Google Scholar
  41. Morelli, M., S. Zicca, G. Bottalico, G. Campanale, M. Calderaro, G. Donatelli, P. Saldarelli, C.S. Pirolo, V.N. Savino, and P. La Notte. 2015. Virus infections and sanitation of ancient grapevine cultivars from Apulia. Proceedings 18th congress of the ICVG, Ankara, Turkey, 242–243.Google Scholar
  42. Murashige, T., and F. Skoog. 1962. A revised medium for rapid growth and bioassays with tobacco tissue cultures. Physiologia Plantarum 15: 473–497.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Nookaraju, A., and D.C. Agrawal. 2012. Genetic homogeneity of in vitro raised plants of grapevine cv. Crimson Seedless revealed by ISSR and microsatellite markers. South African Journal of Botany 78: 302–306.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Nyland, G., and A.C. Goheen. 1969. Heat therapy of virus diseases of perennial plants. Annual Review of Phytopathology 7: 331–354.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Olmo, H.P. 1951. A proposed program for the introduction, improvement, and certification of healthy grape varieties. Wines & Vines 32: 7–9.Google Scholar
  46. ———. 1975. The California grape certification program. Proceedings of the 1st International Seminar on Wine, Jerez, Spain, 379–389.Google Scholar
  47. Olmo, H.P., and A.D. Rizzi. 1943. Selection for fruit color in the Emperor grape. Proceedings of the American Society for Horticultural Science 42: 395–400.Google Scholar
  48. Panattoni A., F. D’Anna, and E. Triolo. 2006. Improvement in grapevine chemotherapy. Proceedings 15th Meeting of the ICVG, Stellenbosch, South Africa pp. 139–140.Google Scholar
  49. Panattoni, A., A. Luvisi, and E. Triolo. 2013. Review. Elimination of viruses in plants: twenty years of progress. Spanish Journal of Agricultural Research 11: 173–188.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Pietersen, G. 2006. Spatio-temporal distribution dynamics of grapevine leafroll disease in Western Cape vineyards. Extended abstracts 15th meeting of ICVG, Stellenbosch, South Africa, 126–127.Google Scholar
  51. Pietersen G., and E. Walsh. 2012. Development of a LAMP technique for control of Grapevine leafroll-associated virus type 3 (GLRaV-3) in infected white cultivar vines by roguing. Proceedings of 17th Congress of ICVG, Davis, CA, USA, 50–51.Google Scholar
  52. Rani, V., and S. Raina. 2000. Genetic fidelity of organized meristem derived micropropagated plants: A critical reappraisal. In Vitro Cellular & Developmental Biology. Plant 36: 319–330.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Ricketts, K.D., M.I. Gomez, S.S. Atallah, M.F. Fuchs, T.E. Martinson, M.C. Battany, L.J. Bettiga, M.L. Cooper, P.S. Verdegaal, and R.J. Smith. 2015. Reducing the economic impact of grapevine leafroll disease in California: Identifying optimal disease management strategies. American Journal of Enology and Viticulture 66: 138–147.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Rowhani, A., J.K. Uyemoto, D. Golino, and G.P. Martelli. 2005. Pathogen testing and certification of Vitis and Prunus species. Annual Review of Phytopathology 43: 261–278.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. Ruffoni, B., and M. Savona. 2013. Physiological and biochemical analysis of growth abnormalities associated with plant tissue culture. Horticulture, Environment and Biotechnology 54 (3): 191–205.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Rühl, E.H., H. Konrad, B. Lindner, and E. Bleser. 2004. Quality criteria and targets for clonal selection in grapevine. Proceedings of St IS on Grapevine. Acta Horticulturae. 652: 29–33.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Rühl, E.H., F. Manty, H. Konrad, and E. Bleser. 2011. The importance of pathogen-free grapevine propagation material in regards to clonal selection and rootstock breeding in Germany. International Journal of Horticultural Science. 17: 11–13.Google Scholar
  58. Salami, S.A., A. Ebadi, Z. Zamani, and M.K. Habibi. 2009. Distribution of GFLV in Iranian vineyards and improvements to sanitation protocols for production of virus-free grapevines. Proc. VIth IS on In Vitro Cult. and Hort. Breed. Acta Horticulturae 829: 389–393.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Savino, V., D. Boscia, and G.P. Martelli. 1985. Incidence of some graft-transmissible virus-like diseases of grapevine in visually selected and heat-treated stocks form Southern Italy. Phytopathologia Mediterranea 24: 204–207.Google Scholar
  60. Schellenbaum, P., V. Mohler, G. Wenzel, and B. Walter. 2008. Variation in DNA methylation patterns of grapevine somaclones. (Vitis vinifera L.). BMC Plant Biology 8: e78.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Schmid, J., R. Ries, and E.H. Rühl. 1995. Aims and achievements of clonal selection at Geisenheim. Proceedings of the International Symposium on Clonal Selection, 70–73. Portland: ASEV.Google Scholar
  62. Sim, S., M. Al Rwahnih, A. Rowhani, and D. Golino. 2012. Virus elimination from grape selections using tissue culture at foundation plant services, 262–263. Davis: University of California.Google Scholar
  63. Skiada, F.G., V.I. Maliogka, N.I. Katis, and E.P. Eleftheriou. 2013. Elimination of Grapevine rupestris stem pitting-associated virus (GRSPaV) from two Vitis vinifera cultivars by in vitro chemotherapy. European Journal of Plant Pathology 135: 407–414.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Spilmont, A.S., A. Ruiz, and S. Grenan. 2012. Efficiency of micrografting of shoot apices as a sanitation method against seven grapevine viruses (ArMV, GFLV, GLRaV-1, -2, -3, GFkV, GVA). Proceedings of the 17th Congress of ICVG, Davis, California, USA, pp. 270–271.Google Scholar
  65. Thomas, P., and G.S. Prakash. 2004. Sanitizing long-term micropropagated grapes from covert and endophytic bacteria and preliminary field testing of plants after 8 years in vitro. In Vitro Cellular & Devlopmental Biology. Plant 40: 603–607.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Walker, J.T.S., J.G. Charles, K.J. Froud, and P. Connolly. 2004. Leafroll virus in vineyards: modelling the spread and economic impact. HortReseach Client Report 12795.Google Scholar
  67. Wang, Q.C., M. Mawassi, P. Li, R. Gafny, I. Sela, and E. Tanne. 2003. Elimination of Grapevine virus A (GVA) by cryopreservation of in vitro-grown shoot tips of Vitis vinifera L. Plant Science 165: 321–327.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Wolpert, J.A. 1996. Performance of Zinfandel and Primitivo clones in a warm climate. American Journal of Enology and Viticulture 47: 124–126.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • D. A. Golino
    • 1
    Email author
  • M. Fuchs
    • 2
  • S. Sim
    • 3
  • K. Farrar
    • 3
  • G. P. Martelli
    • 4
  1. 1.Foundation Plant ServicesUniversity of CaliforniaDavisUSA
  2. 2.Section of Plant Pathology and Plant-Microbe Biology, School of Integrative Plant ScienceNew York State Agricultural Experiment Station Cornell UniversityGenevaUSA
  3. 3.Foundation Plant Services, Department of Plant PathologyUniversity of CaliforniaDavisUSA
  4. 4.Department of Soil, Plant and Food SciencesUniversity of Bari Aldo MoroBariItaly

Personalised recommendations