Advertisement

GeNeDis 2016 pp 185-197 | Cite as

Anxiety and Depression in Staff of Mental Units: The Role of Burnout

  • Ioanna V. Papathanasiou
  • Konstantinos Tsaras
  • Christos F. Kleisiaris
  • Evangelos C. Fradelos
  • Areti Tsaloglidou
  • Dimitrios Damigos
Conference paper
Part of the Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology book series (AEMB, volume 987)

Abstract

One of the most investigated areas is the study of job stress and anxiety and its effects on the professionals’ mental health status. The purpose of this study was to research the levels of anxiety and depression in staff that works in mental units and if burnout is related with these mental health parameters. The sample consisted of 217 mental health care professionals from mental health care units of all over Greece. The Greek version of the Symptoms Rating Scale for Depression and Anxiety (SRSDA) questionnaire was used to evaluate the levels of anxiety and depression and the Greek version of Maslach’s Burnout Inventory (MBI) were used. Descriptive statistics were initially generated for sample characteristics. General linear models with MBI dimensions as independent variables and the anxiety and depression subscales of SRSDA as dependent variables were used to determine the relation between burnout and mental health parameters. Statistics were processed with SPSS v. 19.0. Statistical significance was set at p = 0.05. The average age of the sample was 39.00 ± 8.19 years. Regarding gender the percentage of men was 24.88% (N = 54) and of women 75.11% (N = 163). The means for the subscales of SRSDA were 4.91 ± 4.87 for Anxiety, 6.21 ± 5.92 for Depression Beck-21 and 2.83 ± 3.41 for Depression Beck-13. The results of general linear models are shown that Emotional Exhaustion and Depersonalization are statistically correlated with Anxiety and Depression Subscales of SRSDA. Burnout plays an important role in anxiety and depression levels of the staff that works in mental health units all over Greece.

Keywords

Anxiety Depression Burnout Mental health staff 

Notes

Acknowledgements

Authors would like to thanks all health care professionals from mental health units that participated in the study.

Conflict of Interest

All authors declare that there is no financial or personal conflict of interest related to this paper.

Funding

There was no funding for the current work.

Author Contributions

Conception and design: IVP, DD; statistical analysis: KT; writing of the manuscript: IVP, CFK and ECF; interpretation of study findings and reviewing of the manuscript: IVP, AT, DD; final approval of the manuscript: IVP, KT, CFK, ECF AT, and DD.

References

  1. 1.
    Abd El-aal, N.H., and N.I. Haasan. 2014. Relationship Between Staff Nurses’ Satisfaction with Quality of Work and Their Levels of Depression, Anxiety and Stress in Critical Care Units. Journal of American Science 10 (1s): 91–101. http://www.jofamericanscience.org.
  2. 2.
    Bianchi, R., C. Boffy, C. Hingray, D. Truchot, and E. Laurent. 2013. Comparative Symptomatology of Burnout and Depression. Journal of Health Psychology 18 (6): 782–787.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Gökçen, C., S. Zengin, M.M. Oktay, G. Alpak, B. Al, and C. Yıldırım. 2013. Burnout, Job Satisfaction and Depression in the Healthcare Personnel Who Work in the Emergency Department. Anadolu Psikiyatri Derg 14 (2): 122–128.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Marchand, A., P. Durand, R.P. Juster, and S.J. Lupien. 2014. Workers’ Psychological Distress, Depression, and Burnout Symptoms: Associations with Diurnal Cortisol Profiles. Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment & Health 40 (3): 305.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Papathanasiou, I.V. 2015. Work-Related Mental Consequences: Implications of Burnout on Mental Health Status Among Health Care Providers. Acta Informatica Medica 23 (1): 22–28. doi: 10.5455/aim.2015.23.22-28.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Fradelos, E.C., K. Tsaras, O. Velenzta, E. Vasiliadou, N. Aouant, P. Palla, D. Mitsi, K. Anastopoulou, and I.V. Papathanasiou. 2016. Relation Between Burnout, Mental Health and Aggression of Nursing Personnel. Journal of Disease and Global Health 7 (3): 156–163.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Kelloway, E.K., and J. Barling. 1991. Job Characteristics, Role Stress, and Mental Health. Journal of Occupational Psychology 64: 291–304.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Papathanasiou, I., D. Damigos, and V. Mavreas. 2011. Burnout in Greek Medical and Mental Health Care Workers. Global Journal of Health Science 3 (2): 206–210.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Zohar, D. 1995. The Justice Perspective of Job Stress. Journal of Organizational Behavior 16: 487–495.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Cherniss, C. 1980. Professional Burnout in Human Service Organizations. New York: Praeger.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Burke, R.J., and E.R. Greenglass. 1995. A Longitudinal Study of Psychological Burnout in Teachers. Human Relations 48 (2): 187–202.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    ———. 1990. Type Α Behavior and Nonwork Activities. Personality and Individual Differences 18: 322–328.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Carod-Artal, F.J., and C. Vazquez-Cabrera. 2013. Burnout Syndrome is an International Setting. In Burnout for Experts, 15–35. New York: Springer US.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Chen, X., X. Tan, and L. Li. 2013. Health Problem and Occupational Stress Among Chinese Doctors. Chinese Medicine 4: 1.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Fradelos, E.C., G. Tzitzikos, V. Giannouli, P. Argyrou, C. Vassilopoulou, and P. Theofilou. 2014. Assessment of Burn-Out and Quality of Life in Nursing Professionals: The Contribution of Perceived Social Support. Health Psychology Research 2 (1): 984. doi: 10.4081/hpr.2014.984.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Ganster, D.C., and J. Schaubroeck. 1991. Work Stress and Employee Health. Journal of Management 17 (2): 235–271.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Papathanasiou, I.V., K. Tsaras, A. Neroliatsiou, and A. Roupa. 2015. Stress: Concepts, Theoretical Models and Nursing Interventions. American Journal of Nursing Science 4 (2-1): 45–50. doi: 10.11648/j.ajns.s.2015040201.19.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Greenglass, E.R. 1993. The Contribution of Social Support to Coping Strategies. In Special Issue on Women and Management, Guest Editors: Esther R. Greenglass and Judi Marshall, Applied Psychology: An International Review 42 (4): 323–340.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Papathanasiou, I.V., D. Damigos, and V. Mavreas. 2011. Higher Levels of Psychiatric Symptomatology Reported by Health Professionals Working in Medical Settings in Greece. Annals of General Psychiatry 10: 28.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Roskies, E., C. Louis-Guerin, and C. Fournier. 1993. Coping with Job Insecurity: How Does Personality Make a Difference? Journal of Organizational Behavior 14: 617–630. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Rossouw, L., S. Seedat, R.A. Emsley, S. Suliman, and D. Hagemeister. 2013. The Prevalence of Burnout and Depression in Medical Doctors Working in the Cape Town Metropolitan Municipality Community Healthcare Clinics and District Hospitals of the Provincial Government of the Western Cape: A Cross-Sectional Study. South African Family Practice 55 (6): 567–573.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Adebowale, T.O., and A.O. Adelufosi. 2013. Stress and Minor Psychiatric Morbidity Among Nigerian Executives: Some Socio-Demographic and Biological Correlates. Annals of Medical and Health Sciences Research 3 (3): 412–416.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Derogatis, L.R., R.S. Lipman, K. Rickels, et al. 1997. The Hopkins Symptom Checklist (HSCL): A Self-Report Symptom Inventory. Behavioral Science 19: 1–15.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Machado, T., V. Sathyanarayanan, P. Bhola, and K. Kamath. 2013. Psychological Vulnerability, Burnout, and Coping Among Employees of a Business Process Outsourcing Organization. Industrial Psychiatry Journal 22 (1): 26.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Bakker, A.B., and P.L. Costa. 2014. Chronic Job Burnout and Daily Functioning: A Theoretical Analysis. Burnout Research 1 (3): 112–119.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Leiter, M.P., and J. Durum. 1994. The Discriminant Validity of Burnout and Depression: A Confirmatory Factor Analytic Study. Anxiety, Stress and Coping 7: 357–373.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Gito, M., H. Ihra, and H. Ogata. 2013. The Relationship of Resilience, Hardiness, Depression and Burnout Among Japanese Psychiatric Hospital Nurses. Journal of Nursing Education and Practice 3 (11): 12–18.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Arsenault, A., S.L. Dolan, and M.R. Van Ameringen. 1991. Stress and Mental Strain in Hospital Work: Exploring the Relationship Beyond Personality. Journal of Organizational Behavior 12: 483–493.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Bluen, S.D., J. Barling, and W. Burns. 1990. Predicting Sales Performance, Job Satisfaction, and Depression by Using the Achievement Strivings and Impatience-Irritability Dimensions of Type-A Behavior. Journal of Applied Psychology 75 (2): 212–216.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    McGrath, A., and N.R. Boore. 2003. Occupational Stress in Nursing. International Journal of Nursing Studies 40: 555–565.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Soares, J.F., and B. Jablonska. 2004. Psychosocial Experiences Among Primary Care Patients with and without Musculoskeletal Pain. European Journal of Pain 3: 79–89.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Tanaka, J.S., and G.J. Huba. 1984. Confirmatory Hierarchical Factor Analysis of Psychological Distress Measures. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 46: 621–635.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Firth, H., P. McKeown, J. McIntee, et al. 1987. Professional Depression, “Burnout” and Personality in Longstay Nursing. International Journal of Nursing Studies 24: 227–237.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Maslach, C., and S.E. Jackson. 1981. The Measurement of Experienced Burnout. Journal of Occupational Behavior 2: 99–113.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Reilly, N.P. 1994. Exploring a Paradox: Commitment as a Moderator of the Stressor-Burnout Relationship. Journal of Applied Psychology 24: 297–314.Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Fountoulakis, K.N., A. Iacovides, S. Kleanthous, S. Samolis, K. Gougoulias, G. Kaprinis, and P. Bech. 2003. The Greek Translation of the Symptoms Rating Scale for Depression and Anxiety: Preliminary Results of the Validation Study. BMC Psychiatry 10: 21.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Anagnostopoulos, F., and D. Papadatou. 1992. Reliability and Validity of the Maslach Burnout Inventory to a Population of Nurses. Journal of Psychological Issues 5: 183–202.Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Vickers, A.J. 2005. Parametric Versus Non-parametric Statistics in the Analysis of Randomized Trials with Non-normally Distributed Data. BMC Medical Research Methodology 5: 35.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Zimmerman, D.W. 2000. Statistical Significance Levels of Nonparametric Tests Biased by Heterogeneous Variances of Treatment Groups. Journal of General Psychology 127: 354–364.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Maslach, C., W. Schaufeli, and M.P. Leiter. 2001. Job Burnout. Annual Review of Psychology 52: 397–422.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Jeanneau, M., and K. Armelius. 2000. Self-Image and Burnout in Psychiatric Staff. Journal of Psychiatric and Mental Health Nursing 7: 399–406.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Bakker, A.B., and W.B. Schaufeli. 2000. Burnout Contagion Processes Among Teachers. Journal of Applied Social Psychology 30: 2289–2308.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Glass, D.C., and J.D. McKnight. 1996. Perceived Control, Depressive Symptomatology, and Professional Burnout: A Review of the Evidence. Psychology and Health 11: 23–48.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Iacovides, A., K.N. Fountoulakis, C. Moysidou, et al. 1999. Burnout in Nursing Staff: Is There a Relationship Between Depression and Burnout? Journal of Psychiatry in Medicine 29: 421–433.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Lazarus, R.S., and S. Folkman. 1984. Stress, Appraisal and Coping. New York: Springer.Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    Beck, J., M. Gerber, S. Brand, U. Puhse, and E. Holsboer-Trachsler. 2013. Executive Function Performance is Reduced During Occupational Burnout but can Recover to the Level of Healthy Controls. Journal of Psychiatric Research 47 (1): 1824–1830.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Papadatou, D., F. Anagnostopoulos, and D. Monos. 1994. Factors Contributing to the Development of Burnout in Oncology Nursing. British Journal of Medical Psychology 67: 187–199.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Papathanasiou, I.V., E. Fradelos, Ch. Kleisiaris, K. Tsaras, M. Kalota, and L. Kourkouta. 2014. Motivation, Leadership, Empowerment and Confidence: Their Relation with Nurses’ Burnout. Materia Socio Medica 26 (6): 405–410. doi: 10.5455/MSM.2014.26.405-410.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Fradelos, E., S. Mpelegrinos, C. Mparo, C. Vassilopoulou, P. Argyrou, S. Zyga, M. Tsironi, and P. Theofilou. 2014. Burnout Syndrome Impacts on Quality of Life in Nursing Professionals: The Contribution of Perceived Social Support. Progress in Health Sciences 4 (1): 102–109.Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    Papathanasiou, I.V., Ch. Kleisiaris, K. Tsaras, E. Fradelos, and L. Kourkouta. 2015. General Satisfaction Among Healthcare Workers: Differences Between Employees in Medical and Mental Health Sector. Materia Socio Medica 27 (4): 225–228. doi: 10.5455/msm.2015.27.225-228.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Glass, D.C., J.D. McKnight, and H. Valdimarsdottir. 1993. Depression, Burnout and Perceptions of Control in Hospital Nurses. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 61 (1): 147–155.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ioanna V. Papathanasiou
    • 1
  • Konstantinos Tsaras
    • 1
  • Christos F. Kleisiaris
    • 2
  • Evangelos C. Fradelos
    • 3
  • Areti Tsaloglidou
    • 4
  • Dimitrios Damigos
    • 5
  1. 1.Department of NursingTechnological Educational Institute of ThessalyLarissaGreece
  2. 2.Nursing DepartmentTechnological Educational Institute of CreteHeraklionGreece
  3. 3.Department of Nursing Faculty of Human Movement and Quality of Life SciencesUniversity of PeloponneseSpartaGreece
  4. 4.Nursing DepartmentAlexander Technological Educational Institute of ThessalonikiThessalonikiThessalonikiGreece
  5. 5.Department of Psychiatry, School of MedicineUniversity of IoanninaIoanninaGreece

Personalised recommendations