Advertisement

Lay Theories of Creativity

  • Simone M. Ritter
  • Eric F. Rietzschel
Chapter

Abstract

Creativity is of great appeal and importance to people, and they strive to understand creativity by developing lay theories. Such lay theories about creativity concern, for example, the characteristics of creative persons, such as the ‘mad genius’ idea, or environmental factors that contribute to creative performance, such as ‘group brainstorming.’ Many lay theories about creativity are completely false, and some are only partly correct. Given the importance of creativity for all domains of life, including diverse endeavors such as science, art, technology, design, sports, and medicine, we cannot afford to let lay theories guide our creative efforts without empirical scrutiny. In the current chapter, we therefore describe lay beliefs related to characteristics of the creative person, the skills and processes that are needed to achieve creativity, environments that supposedly stimulate or hinder creativity, and the properties of creative output and behavior, and critically appraise these beliefs in light of what creativity research has shown.

Keywords

Creativity Creative person Creativity enhancement Creative process Creative product Creativity myth Lay theory Lay belief Stereotypes 

References

  1. Amabile, T. M. (1982). Children’s artistic creativity: Detrimental effects of competition in a field setting. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 8, 573–578.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Amabile, T. M. (1983). The social psychology of creativity. New York: Springer.Google Scholar
  3. Amabile, T. M. (1996). Creativity in context: Update to “the social psychology of creativity”. Boulder, CO: Westview Press.Google Scholar
  4. Ashby, F. G., Isen, A. M., & Turken, A. U. (1999). A neuropsychological theory of positive affect and its influence on cognition. Psychological Review, 106, 529–550.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Baas, M., Koch, S., Nijstad, B. A., & De Dreu, C. K. (2015). Conceiving creativity: The nature and consequences of laypeople’s beliefs about the realization of creativity. Psychology of Aesthetics, Creativity, and the Arts, 9, 340.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Baas, M., Nijstad, B. A., Boot, N. C., & De Dreu, C. K. W. (2016). Mad genius revisited: Vulnerability to psychopathology, biobehavioral approach-avoidance, and creativity. Psychological Bulletin, 142, 668–692.Google Scholar
  7. Bachelor, P., & Michael, W. B. (1991). Higher-order factors of creativity within Guilford’s structure-of-intellect model: A re-analysis of a fifty-three variable data base. Creativity Research Journal, 4, 157–175.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Bachelor, P. A., & Michael, W. B. (1997). The structure of intellect model revisited. The Creativity Research Handbook, 1, 155–182.Google Scholar
  9. Baddeley, A. (1996). Exploring the central executive. The Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 49, 5–28.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Baird, B., Smallwood, J., Mrazek, M. D., Kam, J. W., Franklin, M. S., & Schooler, J. W. (2012). Inspired by distraction: Mind wandering facilitates creative incubation. Psychological Science, 23, 1117–1122.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Barron, F. (1955). The disposition toward originality. The Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 51, 478–485.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Bar-Tal, D., Graumann, C. F., Kruglanski, A. W., & Stroebe, W. (Eds.). (2013). Stereotyping and prejudice: Changing conceptions. New York, NY: Springer Science & Business Media.Google Scholar
  13. Benedek, M., Jauk, E., Sommer, M., Arendasy, M., & Neubauer, A. C. (2014). Intelligence, creativity, and cognitive control: The common and differential involvement of executive functions on intelligence and creativity. Intelligence, 46, 73–83.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Benedek, M., Mühlmann, C., Jauk, E., & Neubauer, A. C. (2013). Assessment of divergent thinking by means of the subjective top-scoring method: Effects of the number of top-ideas and time-on-task on reliability and validity. Psychology of Aesthetics, Creativity, and the Arts, 7, 341–349.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Boden, M. A. (2004). The creative mind: Myths and mechanisms. London, UK: Routledge.Google Scholar
  16. Boden, M. A. (2009). Computer models of creativity. AI Magazine, 30, 23–24.Google Scholar
  17. Bodenhausen, G. V., & Lichtenstein, M. (1987). Social stereotypes and information-processing strategies: The impact of task complexity. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 52, 871–880.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Branscombe, N. R., & Cohen, B. M. (1991). Motivation and complexity levels as determinants of heuristic use in social judgment. In J. Forgas (Ed.), Emotion and social judgments (pp. 145–160). Oxford, England: Pergamon Press.Google Scholar
  19. Burnette, J. L., O’Boyle, E. H., VanEpps, E. M., Pollack, J. M., & Finkel, E. J. (2013). Mind-sets matter: A meta-analytic review of implicit theories and self-regulation. Psychological Bulletin, 139, 655–701.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Byrne, R. (1998). The early evolution of creative thinking: Evidence from monkeys and apes. In S. Mithen (Ed.), Creativity in human evolution and prehistory (pp. 110–124). London, UK: Routledge.Google Scholar
  21. Campbell, D. T. (1960). Blind variation and selective retentions in creative thought as in other knowledge processes. Psychological Review, 67, 380–400.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Caroff, X., & Besançon, M. (2008). Variability of creativity judgments. Learning and Individual Differences, 18, 367–371.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Carver, C. S., Sutton, S. K., & Scheier, M. F. (2000). Action, emotion, and personality: Emerging conceptual integration. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 26, 741–751.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Chang, J. W., Huang, D. W., & Choi, J. N. (2012). Is task autonomy beneficial for creativity? Prior task experience and self-control as boundary conditions. Social Behavior and Personality, 40, 705–724.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Chermahini, S. A., & Hommel, B. (2010). The (b)link between creativity and dopamine: Spontaneous eye blink rates predict and dissociate divergent and convergent thinking. Cognition, 115, 458–465.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Chomsky, C. (1972). Stages in language development and reading exposure. Harvard Educational Review, 42, 1–33.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Cohen, H. (1995). The further exploits of AARON Painter. In S. Franchi & G. Guzeldere (Eds.), Constructions of the mind: Artificial intelligence and the humanities (Vol. 4, pp. 141–160). Standford, CA: Special edition of Stanford Humanities Review.Google Scholar
  28. Cohen, H. (2002). A Million Millennial Medicis. In L. Candy & E. A. Edmonds (Eds.), Explorations in art and technology (pp. 91–104). London, UK: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Cope, D. (2006). Computer models of musical creativity. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press.Google Scholar
  30. Creating Minds. (n.d.). Age and creativity. Retrieved on August 4th, 2016, from http://creatingminds.org/articles/age.htm
  31. Cropley, A. J. (1990). Creativity and mental health in everyday life. Creativity Research Journal, 3, 167–178.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Csikszentmihalyi, M. (1997). Finding flow: The psychology of engagement with everyday life. New York, NY: Basic Books.Google Scholar
  33. Cuddy, A. J. C., Norton, M. I., & Fiske, S. T. (2005). This old stereotype: The pervasiveness and persistence of the elderly stereotype. Journal of Social Issues, 61, 267–285.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Dart, P. (1989). Bus-bath-bed: A rationale for irrational predicate identifications in the service of creativity. Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the Speech Communication Association (75th, San Francisco, CA, November 18–21, 1989).Google Scholar
  35. De Bloom, J., Ritter, S., Kühnel, J., Reinders, J., & Geurts, S. (2014). Vacation from work: A ‘ticket to creativity’? The effects of recreational travel on cognitive flexibility and originality. Tourism Management, 44, 164–171.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. De Buisonjé, D. R., Ritter, S. M., De Bruin, S., Ter Horst, J. M.-L., & Meeldijk, A. (under review). Facilitating creative idea selection: The combined effects of self-affirmation, promotion focus and positive affect. Manuscript submitted for publication.Google Scholar
  37. Deci, E. L., & Ryan, R. M. (2002). Handbook of self-determination research. Rochester, NY: University of Rochester Press.Google Scholar
  38. De Dreu, C. K., Baas, M., & Nijstad, B. A. (2008). Hedonic tone and activation level in the mood-creativity link: Toward a dual pathway to creativity model. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 94, 739–756.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. De Dreu, C. K., Nijstad, B. A., Baas, M., Wolsink, I., & Roskes, M. (2012). Working memory benefits creative insight, musical improvisation, and original ideation through maintained task-focused attention. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 38, 656–669.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. de Montaigne, M. (1685/1877/2012). Essays of Michel de Montaigne. Available http://www.gutenberg.org/files/3600/3600-h/3600-h.htm [April 26, 2016].
  41. Delbecq, A. L., & Van de Ven, A. H. (1971). A group process model for problem identification and program planning. The Journal of Applied Behavioral Science, 7, 466–492.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Dennis, A. R., & Valacich, J. S. (1993). Computer brainstorms: More heads are better than one. Journal of Applied Psychology, 78, 531–537.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Dietrich, A., & Haider, H. (2015). Human creativity, evolutionary algorithms, and predictive representations: The mechanics of thought trials. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 22, 897–915. doi: 10.3758/s13423-014-0743-x.
  44. Dodds, R. A., Ward, T. B., & Smith, S. M. (2003). A review of the experimental literature on incubation in problem solving and creativity. Creativity Research Handbook, 3, 285–302.Google Scholar
  45. Dugosh, K. L., Paulus, P. B., Roland, E. J., & Yang, H. C. (2000). Cognitive stimulation in brainstorming. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 79, 722–735.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Duncker, K. (1945). On problem-solving. Psychological Monographs, 58(5), i-113.Google Scholar
  47. Dweck, C. S., Hong, Y., & Chiu, C. (1993). Implicit theories individual differences in the likelihood and meaning of dispositional inference. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 19, 644–656.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Fasko, D. (2001). Education and creativity. Creativity Research Journal, 13, 317–327.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Feist, G. J. (1998). A meta-analysis of personality in scientific and artistic creativity. Personality and Social Psychology Review, 2, 290–309.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Feist, G. J., & Gorman, M. E. (1998). The psychology of science: Review and integration of a nascent discipline. Review of General Psychology, 2, 3–47.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Feldman, D. H., Csikszentmihalyi, M., & Gardner, H. (1994). Changing the world: A framework for the study of creativity. Greenwich, CT: Greenwood Publishing Group.Google Scholar
  52. Finke, R. A., Ward, T. B., & Smith, S. M. (1992). Creative cognition: Theory, research, and applications. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.Google Scholar
  53. Finke, R. A., Ward, T. B., & Smith, S. M. (1995). The Creative cognition approach. Boston, MA: MIT press.Google Scholar
  54. Fiske, S. T., Cuddy, A. J. C., Glick, P., & Xu, J. (2002). A model of (often mixed) stereotype content: Competence and warmth respectively follow from perceived status and competition. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 82, 878–902.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Fleeson, W. (2001). Toward a structure-and process-integrated view of personality: Traits as density distributions of states. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 80, 1011.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Florida, R. (2002). The rise of the creative class. And how it’s transforming work, leisure and everyday life. New York, NY: Basic Books.Google Scholar
  57. Ford, T. E., & Kuglanski, A. W. (2005). Effects of epistemic motivations on the use of accessible constructs in social judgment. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 21, 950–962.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Friedman, R. S., & Förster, J. (2001). The effects of promotion and prevention cues on creativity. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 81, 1001–1013.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Furnham, A. (2014). Increasing your intelligence: Entity and incremental beliefs about the multiple “intelligences”. Learning and Individual Differences, 32, 163–167.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Furnham, A. F. (1988). Lay theories: Everyday understanding of problems in the social sciences. Oxford, UK: Pergamon Press.Google Scholar
  61. Gardner, H. (1993). Creating minds. New York: BasicBooks.Google Scholar
  62. Ghiselin, B. (1952). The creative process. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.Google Scholar
  63. Gingras, Y., Lariviere, V., Macaluso, B., & Robitaille, J.-P. (2008). The effects of aging on researchers’ publication and citation patterns. PLoS ONE, 3, e4048.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Gocłowska, M. A., Baas, M., Crisp, R. J., & De Dreu, C. K. (2014). Whether social schema violations help or hurt creativity depends on need for structure. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 40, 959–971.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Greene, G. (1980). Ways of escape. New York, NY: Simon & Schuster.Google Scholar
  66. Gregoire, C. (2016, March 4). 18 Things highly creative people do differently. The Huffington Post. Retrieved from http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2014/03/04/creativity-habits_n_4859769.html
  67. Gregoire, C., & Kaufman, S. B. (2016, January 4). Creative people’s brains really do work differently. Quartz. Retrieved from http://qz.com/584850/creative-peoples-brains-really-do-work-differently/
  68. Griskevicius, V., Cialdini, R. B., & Kenrick, D. T. (2006). Peacocks, Picasso, and parental investment: The effects of romantic motives on creativity. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 91, 63–76.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Guilford, J. P. (1950). Creativity. American Psychologist, 5, 444–454.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Guilford, J. P. (1967). Creativity: Yesterday, today and tomorrow. The Journal of Creative Behavior, 1, 3–14.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Guilford, J. P. (1968). Intelligence, creativity, and their educational implications. San Diego, CA: RR Knapp.Google Scholar
  72. Gurman, E. B. (1989). Travel abroad: A way to increase creativity? Educational Research Quarterly, 13, 12–16.Google Scholar
  73. Hackman, J. R., & Oldham, G. R. (1976). Motivation through the design of work: Test of a theory. Organizational Behavior and Human Performance, 16, 250–279.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Hennessey, B. A., & Amabile, T. M. (1999). Consensual assessment. Encyclopedia of Creativity1, 347–359.Google Scholar
  75. Hennessey, B. A., & Amabile, T. M. (2010). Creativity. Annual Review of Psychology, 61, 569–598.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Herman, A., & Reiter-Palmon, R. (2011). The effect of regulatory focus on idea generation and idea evaluation. Psychology of Aesthetics, Creativity, and the Arts, 5, 13–20.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Hersey, G., & Freedman, R. (1992). Possible Palladian villas. Cambridge: Massachusetts MIT.Google Scholar
  78. Higgins, E. T. (1997). Beyond pleasure and pain. American Psychologist, 52, 1280–1300.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Hirt, E. R., Devers, E. E., & McCrea, S. M. (2008). I want to be creative: Exploring the role of hedonic contingency theory in the positive mood-cognitive flexibility link. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 94, 214–230.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Howkins, J. (2002). The creative economy: How people make money from ideas. London, UK: Penguin.Google Scholar
  81. Kaiser, K. (n.d.). 20 things only highly creative people would understand. Retrieved from http://www.lifehack.org/articles/communication/20-things-remember-you-love-highly-creative-person.html
  82. Kaufman, J. C. (2002). Dissecting the golden goose: Components of studying creative writers. Communication Research Journal, 14, 27–40.Google Scholar
  83. Kaufman, J. C., & Beghetto, R. A. (2009). Beyond big and little: The four C model of creativity. Review of General Psychology, 13, 1–12.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Kaufman, J. C., Plucker, J. A., & Baer, J. (2008). Essentials of creativity assessment (Vol. 53). Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.Google Scholar
  85. Kilgour, M., Sasser, S., & Koslow, S. (2013). Creativity awards: Great expectations? Creativity Research Journal, 25, 163–171.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Lamm, H., & Trommsdorff, G. (1973). Group versus individual performance on tasks requiring ideational proficiency (brainstorming): A review. European Journal of Social Psychology, 3, 361–388.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Lamont, R. A., Swift, H. J., & Abrams, D. (2015). A review and meta-analysis of age-based stereotype threat: Negative stereotypes, not facts, do the damage. Psychology and Aging, 30, 180–193.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Langfred, C. L., & Moye, N. A. (2004). Effects of task autonomy on performance: An extended model considering motivational, informational, and structural mechanisms. Journal of Applied Psychology, 89, 934–945.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Lee, C. S., & Therriault, D. J. (2013). The cognitive underpinnings of creative thought: A latent variable analysis exploring the roles of intelligence and working memory in three creative thinking processes. Intelligence, 41, 306–320.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Lim, W., & Plucker, J. A. (2001). Creativity through a lens of social responsibility: Implicit theories of creativity with Korean samples. The Journal of Creative Behavior, 35, 115–130.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Mackinnon, D. W. (1962). The nature and nurture of creative talent. American Psychologist, 17, 484–495.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Maddux, W. W., & Galinsky, A. D. (2009). Cultural borders and mental barriers: The relationship between living abroad and creativity. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 96, 1047–1061.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Maier, N. R. (1967). Assets and liabilities in group problem solving: The need for an integrative function. Psychological Review, 74, 239–294.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Mednick, S. A. (1962). The associative basis of the creative process. Psychological Review, 69, 220–232.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Mithen, S. J. (1998). Creativity in human evolution and prehistory. London, UK: Routledge.Google Scholar
  96. Mueller, J. S., Melwani, S., & Goncalo, J. A. (2012). The bias against creativity why people desire but reject creative ideas. Psychological Science, 23, 13–17.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Mueller, J. S., Wakslak, C. J., & Krishnan, V. (2014). Construing creativity: The how and why of recognizing creative ideas. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 51, 81–87.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Mullen, B., Johnson, C., & Salas, E. (1991). Productivity loss in brainstorming groups: A meta-analytic integration. Basic and Applied Social Psychology, 12, 3–23.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Mumford, M. D. (2003). Where have we been, where are we going? Taking stock in creativity research. Creativity Research Journal, 15, 107–120.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Mumford, M. D., Marks, M. A., Connelly, M. S., Zaccaro, S. J., & Johnson, J. F. (1998). Domain-based scoring in divergent-thinking tests: Validation evidence in an occupational sample. Creativity Research Journal, 11, 151–163.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Ng, T. W. H., & Feldman, D. C. (2008). The relationship of age to ten dimensions of job performance. Journal of Applied Psychology, 93, 392–423.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Ng, T. W. H., & Feldman, D. C. (2012). Evaluating six common stereotypes about older workers with meta-analytical data. Personnel Psychology, 65, 821–858.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Ng, T. W. H., & Feldman, D. C. (2013). A meta-analysis of the relationships of age and tenure with innovation-related behaviour. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 86, 585–616.Google Scholar
  104. Nickerson, R. S. (1999). Enhancing Creativity. In R. J. Sternberg (Ed.), Handbook of creativity (pp. 392–430). Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  105. Nielsen, J. A., Zielinski, B. A., Fletcher, P. T., Alexander, A. L., Lange, N., Bigler, E. D., et al. (2014). Abnormal lateralization of functional connectivity between language and default mode regions in autism. Molecular Autism, 5, 1–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Nijstad, B. A., De Dreu, C. K., Rietzschel, E. F., & Baas, M. (2010). The dual pathway to creativity model: Creative ideation as a function of flexibility and persistence. European Review of Social Psychology, 21, 34–77.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Nijstad, B. A., & Stroebe, W. (2006). How the group affects the mind: A cognitive model of idea generation in groups. Personality and Social Psychology Review, 10, 186–213.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Nijstad, B. A., Stroebe, W., & Lodewijkx, H. F. M. (2002). Cognitive stimulation and interference in groups: Exposure effects in an idea generation task. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 38, 535–544.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Nijstad, B. A., Stroebe, W., & Lodewijkx, H. F. M. (2006). The illusion of group productivity: A reduction of failures explanation. European Journal of Social Psychology, 36, 31–48.Google Scholar
  110. Oberauer, K., Süβ, H. M., Wilhelm, O., & Wittmann, W. W. (2008). Which working memory functions predict intelligence? Intelligence, 36, 641–652.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Osborn, A. F. (1957). Applied imagination (2nd ed.). New York, NY: Charles Scribner’s Sons.Google Scholar
  112. Paulus, P. B., Dzindolet, M. T., Poletes, G., & Camacho, L. M. (1993). Perception of performance in group brainstorming: The illusion of group productivity. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 19, 78–89.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Paulus, P. B., Larey, T. S., & Ortega, A. H. (1995). Performance and perception of brainstormers in an organizational setting. Basic and Applied Social Psychology, 17, 249–265.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Pinker, S. (1984). Visual cognition: An introduction. Cognition, 18, 1–63.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Plaks, J. E., & Chasteen, A. L. (2013). Entity versus incremental theories predict older adults’ memory performance. Psychology and Aging, 28, 948–957.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Plucker, J. A., & Renzulli, J. S. (1999). Psychometric approaches to the study of human creativity. In R. J. Sternberg (Ed.), Handbook of creativity (pp. 35–61). Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  117. Rattan, A., Good, C., & Dweck, C. S. (2012). “It’s ok—Not everyone can be good at math”: Instructors with an entity theory comfort (and demotivate) students. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 48, 731–737.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. Reiter-Palmon, R., Mumford, M. D., & Threlfall, K. V. (1998). Solving everyday problems creatively: The role of problem construction and personality type. Creativity Research Journal, 11, 187–197.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. Rhodes, M. (1961). An analysis of creativity. The Phi Delta Kappan, 42, 305–310.Google Scholar
  120. Rietzschel, E. F., De Dreu, C. K. W., & Nijstad, B. A. (2007a). Personal need for structure and creative performance: The moderating influence of fear of invalidity. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 33, 855–866.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. Rietzschel, E. F., Nijstad, B. A., & Stroebe, W. (2006). Productivity is not enough: A comparison of interactive and nominal brainstorming groups on idea generation and selection. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 42, 244–251.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. Rietzschel, E. F., Nijstad, B. A., & Stroebe, W. (2007b). Relative accessibility of domain knowledge and creativity: The effects of knowledge activation on the quantity and originality of generated ideas. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 43, 933–946.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. Rietzschel, E. F., Nijstad, B. A., & Stroebe, W. (2010). The selection of creative ideas after individual idea generation: Choosing between creativity and impact. British Journal of Psychology, 101, 47–68.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. Rietzschel, E. F., Slijkhuis, J. M., & Van Yperen, N. W. (2014). Close monitoring as a contextual stimulator: How need for structure affects the relation between close monitoring and work outcomes. European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology, 23, 394–404.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. Rietzschel, E. F., Zacher, H., & Stroebe, W. (2016). A lifespan perspective on creativity and innovation at work. Work, Aging and Retirement, 2, 105–129.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. Ritter, S. M., Damian, R. I., Simonton, D. K., van Baaren, R. B., Strick, M., Derks, J., et al. (2012a). Diversifying experiences enhance cognitive flexibility. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 48, 961–964.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. Ritter, S. M., & Dijksterhuis, A. (2014). The unconscious foundations of creative thought. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, 8, 1–10.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. Ritter, S. M., van Baaren, R. B., & Dijksterhuis, A. (2012b). Creativity: The role of unconscious processes in idea generation and idea selection. Thinking Skills and Creativity, 7, 21–27.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. Ritter, S. M., & Mostert, N. (2016). Enhancement of creative thinking skills using a cognitive based creativity training. Journal of Cognitive Enhancement. Google Scholar
  130. Ritter, S. M., Strick, M., Bos, M. W., van Baaren, R. B., & Dijksterhuis, A. (2012c). Good morning creativity: Task reactivation during sleep enhances beneficial effect of sleep on creative performance. Journal of Sleep Research, 21, 643–647.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. Roskes, M., De Dreu, C. K. W., & Nijstad, B. A. (2012). Necessity is the mother of invention: Avoidance motivation stimulates creativity through cognitive effort. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 103, 242–256.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. Rowe, G., Hirsh, J. B., & Anderson, A. K. (2007). Positive affect increases the breadth of attentional selection. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 104, 383–388.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. Runco, M. A. (1988). Creativity research: Originality, utility, and integration. Creativity Research Journal, 1, 1–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. Runco, M. A. (1999). A longitudinal study of exceptional giftedness and creativity. Creativity Research Journal, 12, 161–164.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. Runco, M. A. (2004). Personal creativity and culture. In S. Lau, A. N. B. Hui, & G. Y. C. Ng (Eds.), Creativity when east meets west (pp. 9–22). Singapore: World Scientific Publishing.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  136. Runco, M. A., & Charles, R. E. (1993). Judgments of originality and appropriateness as predictors of creativity. Personality and Individual Differences, 15, 537–546.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  137. Runco, M. A., & Johnson, D. J. (2002). Parents’ and teachers’ implicit theories of children’s creativity: A cross-cultural perspective. Creativity Research Journal, 14, 427–438.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  138. Runco, M. A., Johnson, D. J., & Bear, P. K. (1993). Parents’ and teachers’ implicit theories of children’s creativity. Child Study Journal.Google Scholar
  139. Sagiv, L., Arieli, S., Goldenberg, J., & Goldschmidt, A. (2010). Structure and freedom in creativity: The interplay between externally imposed structure and personal cognitive style. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 31, 1086–1110.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  140. Schneider, B. (1987). The people make the place. Personnel Psychology, 40, 437–453.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  141. Scott, G., Leritz, L. E., & Mumford, M. D. (2004). The effectiveness of creativity training: A quantitative review. Creativity Research Journal, 16, 361–388.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  142. Scratchley, L. S., & Hakstian, A. R. (2001). The measurement and prediction of managerial creativity. Creativity Research Journal, 13, 367–384.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  143. Seibt, B., & Förster, J. (2004). Stereotype threat and performance: How self-stereotypes influence processing by inducing regulatory focus. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 87, 38–56.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  144. Shalley, C. E., Gilson, L. L., & Blum, T. C. (2009). Interactive effects of growth need strength, work context, and job complexity on self-reported creative performance. Academy of Management Journal, 52, 489–505.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  145. Shalley, C. E., & Perry-Smith, J. E. (2001). Effects of social-psychological factors on creative performance: The role of informational and controlling expected evaluation and modeling experience. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 84, 1–22.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  146. Shalley, C. E., & Zhou, J. (2008). Organizational creativity research: A historical overview. In C. Shalley & J. Zhou (Eds.), Handbook of organizational creativity (pp. 3–31). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  147. Shearring, H. A. (1992). Creativity and older adults. Leadership & Organization Development Journal, 13, 11–16.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  148. Silvia, P. J., & Kaufman, J. C. (2010). Creativity and mental illness. In J. C. Kaufman & R. J. Sternberg (Eds.), The Cambridge handbook of creativity (pp. 381–394). Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  149. Silvia, P. J., Winterstein, B. P., Willse, J. T., Barona, C. M., Cram, J. T., Hess, K. I., et al. (2008). Assessing creativity with divergent thinking tasks: Exploring the reliability and validity of new subjective scoring methods. Psychology of Aesthetics, Creativity, and the Arts, 2, 68–85.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  150. Simon, H. A. (1955). A behavioral model of rational choice. Quarterly Journal of Economics, 69, 99–118.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  151. Simon, H. A., Newell, A., & Shaw, J. C. (1962). The processes of creative thinking. In H. E. Gruber, G. Terrell, & M. Wertheimer (Eds.), Contemporary approaches to creative thinking (pp. 63–119). New York, NY: Lieber-Atherton.Google Scholar
  152. Simonton, D. K. (1997). Creative productivity: A predictive and explanatory model of career trajectories and landmarks. Psychological Review, 104, 66–89.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  153. Simonton, D. K. (1999). Creativity as blind variation and selective retention: Is the creative process Darwinian? Psychological Inquiry, 10, 309–328.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  154. Simonton, D. K. (2004). Creativity in science: Chance, logic, genius, and zeitgeist. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  155. Simonton, D. K. (2014a). The mad-genius paradox: Can creative people be more mentally healthy but highly creative people more mentally ill? Perspectives on Psychological Science, 9, 470–480.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  156. Simonton, D. K. (2014b). More method in the mad-genius controversy: A historiometric study of 204 historic creators. Psychology of Aesthetics, Creativity, and the Arts, 8, 53–61.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  157. Sio, U. N., & Ormerod, T. C. (2009). Does incubation enhance problem solving? A meta-analytic review. Psychological Bulletin, 135, 94–120.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  158. Sligte, D. J., De Dreu, C. K., & Nijstad, B. A. (2011). Power, stability of power, and creativity. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 47, 891–897.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  159. Smith, G. F. (1998). Idea-generation techniques: A formulary of active ingredients. The Journal of Creative Behavior, 32, 107–134.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  160. Smith, S. M., & Blankenship, S. E. (1991). Incubation and the persistence of fixation in problem solving. The American Journal of Psychology, 104, 61–87.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  161. Smith, S. M., Ward, T. B., & Finke, R. A. (1995). The creative cognition approach. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.Google Scholar
  162. Steele, C. M., & Aronson, J. (1995). Stereotype threat and the intellectual test performance of African Americans. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 69, 797–811.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  163. Stein, M. I. (1953). Creativity and culture. The Journal of Psychology, 36, 311–322.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  164. Sternberg, R. J., & Lubart, T. I. (1999). The concept of creativity: Prospects and paradigms. Handbook of creativity, 1, 3–15.Google Scholar
  165. Sternberg, R. J., & O’Hara, L. A. (1999). Creativity and intelligence. In R. J. Sternberg (Ed.), Handbook of creativity (pp. 251–272). Cambridge, MA: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  166. Stroebe, W. (2010). Age and scientific creativity. Wiley, Inc.Google Scholar
  167. Stroebe, W., Nijstad, B. A., & Rietzschel, E. F. (2010). Beyond productivity loss in brainstorming groups: The evolution of a question. Advances in Experimental Social Psychology, 43, 157–203. Burlington, MA: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  168. Taylor, D. W., Berry, P. C., & Block, C. H. (1958). Does group participation when using brainstorming facilitate or inhibit creative thinking? Administrative Science Quarterly, 3, 23–47.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  169. Treffinger, D. J. (1995). Creative problem solving: Overview and educational implications. Educational Psychology Review, 7, 301–312.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  170. Trope, Yaacov, & Liberman, Nira. (2010). Construal-level theory of psychological distance. Psychological Review, 117(2), 440–463.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  171. Valacich, J. S., Dennis, A. R., & Connolly, T. (1994). Idea-generation in computer-based groups: A new ending to an old story. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 57, 448–467.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  172. Van Prooijen, J.-W., & Van De Veer, E. (2010). Perceiving pure evil: The influence of cognitive load and prototypical evilness on demonizing. Social Justice Research, 23, 259–271.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  173. Van Strien, P. J. (2012). Psychologie van de wetenschap (Psychology of science). Amsterdam, The Netherlands: Amsterdam University Press.Google Scholar
  174. Van Strien, P. J. (2015). Het creatieve genie (The creative genius). Amsterdam, The Netherlands: Amsterdam University Press.Google Scholar
  175. Vincent, A. S., Decker, B. P., & Mumford, M. D. (2002). Divergent thinking, intelligence, and expertise: A test of alternative models. Creativity Research Journal, 14, 163–178.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  176. Wallas, G. (1926). The art of thought. New York: Harcourt Brace.Google Scholar
  177. Ward, T. B. (1994). Structured imagination: The role of category structure in exemplar generation. Cognitive Psychology, 27, 1–40.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  178. Ward, T. B., Finke, R. A., & Smith, S. M. (1995). Creativity and the mind. New York, NY: Plenum.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  179. West, M. A. (2002). Sparkling fountains or stagnant ponds: An integrative model of creativity and innovation implementation in work groups. Applied Psychology, 51, 355–387.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  180. Zytkow, J. (1997). Machine discovery. London, UK: Kluwer Academic.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Behavioural Science InstituteRadboud University NijmegenNijmegenThe Netherlands
  2. 2.Department of PsychologyUniversity of GroningenGroningenThe Netherlands

Personalised recommendations