Advertisement

Clinical Aspects of Alzheimer’s Disease

  • Fiona KumforEmail author
  • Glenda M. Halliday
  • Olivier Piguet
Part of the Advances in Neurobiology book series (NEUROBIOL, volume 15)

Abstract

Alzheimer’s disease is the most common form of dementia accounting for 50–60% of all dementia cases. This chapter briefly reviews the history of Alzheimer’s disease and provides an overview of the clinical syndromes associated with Alzheimer pathology and their associated neuroimaging findings. This chapter also reviews the neuropathology and genetics of Alzheimer’s disease and concludes by discussing current work undertaken to identify suitable in vivo biomarkers for the disease.

Keywords

Biomarkers Cognition Genes Logopenic progressive aphasia Memory Neuroimaging Posterior cortical atrophy 

Abbreviations

ABCA7

ATP-binding cassette, subfamily A, member 7

AD

Alzheimer’s disease

ApoE

Apolipoprotein

APP

Amyloid precursor protein

BIN1

Bridging integrator 1

CR1

Complement component receptor 1

CSF

Cerebrospinal fluid

CT

Computer tomography

FDG-PET

18F fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography

HLA

Major histocompatibility complex class II

LPA

Logopenic progressive aphasia

MCI

Mild cognitive impairment

MRI

Magnetic resonance imaging

PCA

Posterior cortical atrophy

PIB

11C-labelled Pittsburgh compound B

PSEN1

Presenilin 1

PSEN2

Presenilin 2

SPECT

Single photon emission computed tomography

Notes

Acknowledgement

This work was supported by funding to Forefront, a collaborative research group dedicated to the study of frontotemporal dementia and motor neurone disease, from the National Health and Medical Research Council (NHMRC) of Australia program grant (#1037746) and the Australian Research Council (ARC) Centre of Excellence in Cognition and its Disorders Memory Node (#CE110001021) and other grants/sources that are applicable. We thank Heidi Cartwright for the artwork. FK is supported by an Alzheimer’s Australia Dementia Research Foundation Postdoctoral Fellowship and an NHMRC-ARC Dementia Research Development Fellowship (APP1097026). GMH is an NHMRC Senior Principal Research Fellow (APP1079679). OP is an NHMRC Senior Research Fellow (APP1103258).

Conflict of Interest

The authors have no conflict of interest.

References

  1. 1.
    Jiang T, Yu JT, Tian Y et al (2013) Epidemiology and etiology of Alzheimer’s disease: from genetic to non-genetic factors. Curr Alzheimer Res 10:852–867CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Alonso Vilatela ME, Lopez-Lopez M, Yescas-Gomez P (2012) Genetics of Alzheimer’s disease. Arch Med Res 43:622–631CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Slooter AJ, Cruts M, Kalmijn S et al (1998) Risk estimates of dementia by apolipoprotein E genotypes from a population-based incidence study: the Rotterdam Study. Arch Neurol 55:964–968CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Talbot C, Lendon C, Craddock N, Shears S, Morris J, Goate A (1994) Protection against Alzheimer's disease with apoE∈ 2. Lancet 343(8910):1432–1433CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Guerreiro R, Hardy J (2014) Genetics of Alzheimer’s disease. Neurotherapeutics 11(4):732–737CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Kim DH, Yeo SH, Park JM, Choi JY, Lee TH, Park SY et al (2014) Genetic markers for diagnosis and pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease. Gene 545(2):185–193CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Nelson PT, Alafuzoff I, Bigio EH, Bouras C, Braak H, Cairns NJ et al (2012) Correlation of Alzheimer disease neuropathologic changes with cognitive status: a review of the literature. J Neuropathol Exp Neurol 71(5):362–381CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Braak H, Zetterberg H, Del Tredici K, Blennow K (2013) Intraneuronal tau aggregation precedes diffuse plaque deposition, but amyloid-β changes occur before increases of tau in cerebrospinal fluid. Acta Neuropathol 126(5):631–641CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Nisbet RM, Polanco JC, Ittner LM, Götz J (2015) Tau aggregation and its interplay with amyloid-β. Acta Neuropathol 129(2):207–220CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Galton CJ, Patterson K, Xuereb JH, Hodges JR (2000) Atypical and typical presentations of Alzheimer's disease: a clinical, neuropsychological, neuroimaging and pathological study of 13 cases. Brain 123(3):484–498CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    McKhann GM, Knopman DS, Chertkow H, Hyman BT, Jack CR Jr, Kawas CH et al (2011) The diagnosis of dementia due to Alzheimer’s disease: recommendations from the National Institute on Aging-Alzheimer’s Association workgroups on diagnostic guidelines for Alzheimer's disease. Alzheimers Dement 7(3):263–269CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Kumfor F, Piguet O (2013) Emotion recognition in the dementias: brain correlates and patient implications. Neurodegener Dis Manag 3(3):277–288CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Martin A, Brouwers P, Cox C, Fedio P (1985) On the nature of the verbal memory deficit in Alzheimer's disease. Brain Lang 25(2):323–341CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Perry RJ, Watson P, Hodges JR (2000) The nature and staging of attention dysfunction in early (minimal and mild) Alzheimer's disease: relationship to episodic and semantic memory impairment. Neuropsychologia 38(3):252–271CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Weingartner H (1983) Forms of memory failure. Science 221(4608):380–382CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Greene JDW, Baddeley AD, Hodges JR (1996) Analysis of the episodic memory deficit in early Alzheimer's disease: evidence from the doors and people test. Neuropsychologia 34(6):537–551CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Blackwell AD, Sahakian BJ, Vesey R, Semple JM, Robbins TW, Hodges JR (2004) Detecting dementia: novel neuropsychological markers of preclinical Alzheimer’s disease. Dement Geriatr Cogn Disord 17(1–2):42–48CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Fowler KS, Saling MM, Conway EL, Semple JM, Louis WJ (1997) Computerized neuropsychological tests in the early detection of dementia: prospective findings. J Int Neuropsychol Soc 3(02):139–146PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Irish M, Lawlor BA, O'Mara SM, Coen RF (2011) Impaired capacity for autonoetic reliving during autobiographical event recall in mild Alzheimer's disease. Cortex 47(2):236–249CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Kopelman M, Wilson B, Baddeley A (1989) The autobiographical memory interview: a new assessment of autobiographical and personal semantic memory in amnesic patients. J Clin Exp Neuropsychol 11(5):724–744CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Nestor P, Graham K, Bozeat S, Simons J, Hodges J (2002) Memory consolidation and the hippocampus: further evidence from studies of autobiographical memory in semantic dementia and frontal variant frontotemporal dementia. Neuropsychologia 40(6):633–654CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Carter SF, Caine D, Burns A, Herholz K, Lambon Ralph MA (2012) Staging of the cognitive decline in Alzheimer's disease: insights from a detailed neuropsychological investigation of mild cognitive impairment and mild Alzheimer's disease. Int J Geriatr Psychiatry 27(4):423–432PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Perry RJ, Hodges JR (1999) Attention and executive deficits in Alzheimer's disease. A critical review. Brain 122(3):383–404CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Rosser A, Hodges JR (1994) Initial letter and semantic category fluency in Alzheimer's disease, Huntington's disease, and progressive supranuclear palsy. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 57(11):1389–1394CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Grossman M, McMillan C, Moore P, Ding L, Glosser G, Work M et al (2004) What’s in a name: voxel-based morphometric analyses of MRI and naming difficulty in Alzheimer’s disease, frontotemporal dementia and corticobasal degeneration. Brain 127(3):628–649CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Binetti G, Cappa SF, Magni E, Padovani A, Bianchetti A, Trabucchi M (1998) Visual and spatial perception in the early phase of Alzheimer's disease. Neuropsychology 12(1):29CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Bigler ED, Rosa L, Schultz F, Hall S, Harris J (1989) Rey-auditory verbal learning and rey-osterrieth complex figure design performance in Alzheimer's disease and closed head injury. J Clin Psychol 45(2):277–280CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Mendez MF, Ala T, Underwood KL (1992) Development of scoring criteria for the clock drawing task in Alzheimer's disease. J Am Geriatr Soc 40(11):1095–1099CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Pai MC, Jacobs WJ (2004) Topographical disorientation in community-residing patients with Alzheimer's disease. Int J Geriatr Psychiatry 19(3):250–255CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Tu S, Wong S, Hodges JR, Irish M, Piguet O, Hornberger M (2015) Lost in spatial translation–a novel tool to objectively assess spatial disorientation in Alzheimer's disease and frontotemporal dementia. Cortex 67:83–94CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Binetti G, Magni E, Padovani A, Cappa S, Bianchetti A, Trabucchi M (1996) Executive dysfunction in early Alzheimer's disease. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 60(1):91–93CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Collette F, Van der Linden M, Salmon E (1999) Executive dysfunction in Alzheimer's disease. Cortex 35(1):57–72CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Grober E, Hall CB, Lipton RB, Zonderman AB, Resnick SM, Kawas C (2008) Memory impairment, executive dysfunction, and intellectual decline in preclinical Alzheimer's disease. J Int Neuropsychol Soc 14(02):266–278CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Pengas G, Hodges JR, Watson P, Nestor PJ (2010) Focal posterior cingulate atrophy in incipient Alzheimer's disease. Neurobiol Aging 31(1):25–33CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Scheltens P, Leys D, Barkhof F, Huglo D, Weinstein HC, Vermersch P et al (1992) Atrophy of medial temporal lobes on MRI in "probable" Alzheimer's disease and normal ageing: diagnostic value and neuropsychological correlates. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 55(10):967–972CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Westman E, Cavallin L, Muehlboeck JS, Zhang Y, Mecocci P, Vellas B, et al. Sensitivity and specificity of medial temporal lobe visual ratings and multivariate regional mri classification in Alzheimer's disease. PLoS One 2011;6(7):e22506.Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Fox NC, Crum WR, Scahill RI, Stevens JC, Janssen JC, Rossor MN (2001) Imaging of onset and progression of Alzheimer's disease with voxel-compression mapping of serial magnetic resonance images. Lancet 358:201–205CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Canu E, Frisoni GB, Agosta F, Pievani M, Bonetti M, Filippi M (2012) Early and late onset Alzheimer's disease patients have distinct patterns of white matter damage. Neurobiol Aging 33(6):1023–1033CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Frisoni GB, Pievani M, Testa C, Sabattoli F, Bresciani L, Bonetti M et al (2007) The topography of grey matter involvement in early and late onset Alzheimer's disease. Brain 130(3):720–730CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Bloudek LM, Spackman DE, Blankenburg M, Sullivan SD (2011) Review and meta-analysis of biomarkers and diagnostic imaging in Alzheimer’s disease. J Alzheimers Dis 26:627–645Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Silverman DH, Small GW, Chang CY, Lu CS, de Aburto MAK, Chen W et al (2001) Positron emission tomography in evaluation of dementia: regional brain metabolism and long-term outcome. JAMA 286(17):2120–2127CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Buckner RL, Snyder AZ, Shannon BJ, LaRossa G, Sachs R, Fotenos AF et al (2005) Molecular, structural, and functional characterization of Alzheimer's disease: evidence for a relationship between default activity, amyloid, and memory. J Neurosci 25(34):7709–7717CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Greicius MD, Srivastava G, Reiss AL, Menon V (2004) Default-mode network activity distinguishes Alzheimer's disease from healthy aging: evidence from functional MRI. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 101(13):4637–4642CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Irish M, Piguet O, Hodges JR (2012) Self-projection and the default network in frontotemporal dementia. Nat Rev Neurol 8(3):152–161CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Seeley WW, Crawford RK, Zhou J, Miller BL, Grecius MD (2009) Neurodegenerative disease target large-scale human brain networks. Neuron 62:42–52CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Zhou J, Greicius MD, Gennatas ED, Growdon ME, Jang JY, Rabinovici GD et al (2010) Divergent network connectivity changes in behavioural variant frontotemporal dementia and Alzheimer’s disease. Brain 133(5):1352–1367CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    McKhann G, Drachman D, Folstein M, Katzman R, Price D, Stadian EM (1984) Clinical diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease: report of the NINCDS-ADRDA work group under the auspices of departments of health and human services task force on Alzheimer's disease. Neurology 34(7):939–944CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Alladi S, Xuereb J, Bak T, Nestor P, Knibb J, Patterson K et al (2007) Focal cortical presentations of Alzheimer's disease. Brain 130(10):2636–2645CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Snowden JS, Stopford CL, Julien CL, Thompson JC, Davidson Y, Gibbons L et al (2007) Cognitive phenotypes in Alzheimer's disease and genetic risk. Cortex 43(7):835–845CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Scheltens NME, Galindo-Garre F, Pijnenburg YAL, van der Vlies AE, Smits LL, Koene T et al (2015) The identification of cognitive subtypes in Alzheimer's disease dementia using latent class analysis. J Neurol Neurosurg PsychiatryGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Gorno-Tempini ML, Brambati SM, Ginex V, Ogar JM, Dronkers NF, Marcone A et al (2008) The logopenic/ phonological variant of primary progressive aphasia. Neurology 71(16):1227–1234CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Gorno-Tempini ML, Hillis A, Weintraub S, Kertesz A, Mendez M, Cappa SF et al (2011) Classification of primary progressive aphasia and its variants. Neurology 76(11):1006–1014CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Dubois B, Feldman HH, Jacova C, Hampel H, Molinuevo JL, Blennow K et al (2014) Advancing research diagnostic criteria for Alzheimer's disease: the IWG-2 criteria. Lancet Neurol 13(6):614–629CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Leyton C, Hodges J (2013) Towards a clearer definition of logopenic progressive aphasia. Curr Neurol Neurosci Rep 13(11):1–7CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Leyton CE, Hodges JR (2014) Differential diagnosis of primary progressive aphasia variants using the international criteria. Aphasiology 28(8–9):909–921CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Leyton CE, Savage S, Irish M, Schubert S, Piguet O, Ballard KJ et al (2014) Verbal repetition in primary progressive aphasia and Alzheimer’s disease. J Alzheimers Dis 41(2)Google Scholar
  57. 57.
    Piguet O, Leyton CE, Gleeson LD, Hoon C, Hodges JR (2015) Memory and emotion processing performance contributes to the diagnosis of non-semantic primary progressive aphasia syndromes. J Alzheimers Dis 15:16Google Scholar
  58. 58.
    Leyton CE, Hsieh S, Mioshi E, Hodges JR (2013) Cognitive decline in logopenic aphasia more than losing words. Neurology 80(10):897–903CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Gorno-Tempini ML, Dronkers NF, Rankin K, Ogar JM, Phengrasamy L, Rosen HJ et al (2004) Cognition and anatomy in three variants of primary progressive aphasia. Ann Neurol 55(3):335–346CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Rohrer JD, Ridgway GR, Crutch SJ, Hailstone J, Goll JC, Clarkson MJ et al (2010) Progressive logopenic/phonological aphasia: erosion of the language network. NeuroImage 49(1):984–993CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Rogalski E, Cobia D, Harrison T, Wieneke C, Weintraub S, Mesulam M-M (2011) Progression of language decline and cortical atrophy in subtypes of primary progressive aphasia. Neurology 76(21):1804–1810CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Rohrer JD, Caso F, Mahoney C, Henry M, Rosen HJ, Rabinovici G et al (2013) Patterns of longitudinal brain atrophy in the logopenic variant of primary progressive aphasia. Brain Lang 127(2):121–126CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Crutch SJ, Schott JM, Rabinovici GD, Boeve BF, Cappa SF, Dickerson BC et al (2013) Shining a light on posterior cortical atrophy. Alzheimers Dement 9(4):463–465CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Hof PR, Bouras C, Constantinidis J, Morrison JH (1990) Selective disconnection of specific visual association pathways in cases of Alzheimer's disease presenting with Balint's syndrome. J Neuropathol Exp Neurol 49(2):168–184CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Crutch SJ, Lehmann M, Schott JM, Rabinovici GD, Rossor MN, Fox NC (2012) Posterior cortical atrophy. Lancet Neurol 11(2):170–178CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    McMonagle P, Deering F, Berliner Y, Kertesz A (2006) The cognitive profile of posterior cortical atrophy. Neurology 66(3):331–338CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Andrade K, Kas A, Samri D, Sarazin M, Dubois B, Habert M-O et al (2013) Visuospatial deficits and hemispheric perfusion asymmetries in posterior cortical atrophy. Cortex 49(4):940–947CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Lehmann M, Crutch SJ, Ridgway GR, Ridha BH, Barnes J, Warrington EK et al (2011) Cortical thickness and voxel-based morphometry in posterior cortical atrophy and typical Alzheimer's disease. Neurobiol Aging 32(8):1466–1476CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Ossenkoppele R, Pijnenburg YA, Perry DC, Cohn-Sheehy BI, Scheltens NM, Vogel JW et al (2015) The behavioural/dysexecutive variant of Alzheimer’s disease: clinical, neuroimaging and pathological features. Brain 138(9):2732–2749CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Ossenkoppele R, Cohn-Sheehy BI, La Joie R, Vogel JW, Möller C, Lehmann M et al (2015) Atrophy patterns in early clinical stages across distinct phenotypes of Alzheimer's disease. Hum Brain Mapp 36(11):4421–4437CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Chare L, Hodges JR, Leyton CE, McGinley C, Tan RH, Kril JJ et al (2014) New criteria for frontotemporal dementia syndromes: clinical and pathological diagnostic implications. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 85:865–870CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Forman MS, Farmer J, Johnson JK, Clark CM, Arnold SE, Coslett H et al (2006) Frontotemporal dementia: clinicopathological correlations. Ann Neurol 59(6):952–962CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Warren JD, Fletcher PD, Golden HL (2012) The paradox of syndromic diversity in Alzheimer disease. Nat Rev Neurol 8(8):451–464PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Lehmann M, Rohrer JD, Clarkson MJ, Ridgway GR, Scahill RI, Modat M et al (2010) Reduced cortical thickness in the posterior cingulate gyrus is characteristic of both typical and atypical Alzheimer's disease. J Alzheimers Dis 20(2):587–598CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Whitwell JL, Jack CR Jr, Przybelski SA, Parisi JE, Senjem ML, Boeve BF et al (2011) Temporoparietal atrophy: a marker of AD pathology independent of clinical diagnosis. Neurobiol Aging 32(9):1531–1541CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Bateman RJ, Xiong C, Benzinger TL et al (2012) Clinical and biomarker changes in dominantly inherited Alzheimer’s disease. N Engl J Med 367:795–804CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Seppala TT, Nerg O, Koivisto AM et al (2012) CSF biomarkers for Alzheimer disease correlate with cortical brain biopsy findings. Neurology 78:1568–1575CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Tapiola T, Alafuzoff I, Herukka SK et al (2009) Cerebrospinal fluid -amyloid 42 and tau proteins as biomarkers of Alzheimer-type pathologic changes in the brain. Arch Neurol 66:382–389CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Schofield EC, Halliday GM et al (2010) Low serum progranulin predicts the presence of mutations: a prospective study. J Alzheimers Dis 22(3):981–984CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Suarez-Calvet M, Dols-Icardo O et al (2014) Plasma phosphorylated TDP-43 levels are elevated in patients with frontotemporal dementia carrying a C9orf72 repeat expansion or a GRN mutation. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 85(6):684–691CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Snyder HM, Carrillo MC, Grodstein F, Henriksen K, Jeromin A, Lovestone S et al (2014) Developing novel blood-based biomarkers for Alzheimer's disease. Alzheimers Dement 10(1):109–114CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Koyama A, Okereke OI, Yang T, Blacker D, Selkoe DJ, Grodstein F (2012) Plasma amyloid-beta as a predictor of dementia and cognitive decline: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Arch Neurol 69:824–831CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Villemagne VL, Furumoto S, Fodero-Tavoletti MT, Mulligan RS, Hodges J, Harada R et al (2014) In vivo evaluation of a novel tau imaging tracer for Alzheimer’s disease. Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging 41(5):816–826CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Marquie M, Normandin MD, Vanderburg CR, Costantino I, Bien EA, Rycyna LG, Klunk WE, Mathis CA, Ikonomovic MD, Debnath ML, Vasdev N, Dickerson BC, Gomperts SN, Growdon JH, Johnson KA, Frosch MP, Hyman BT, Gomez-Isla T (2015) Validating novel tau PET tracer [F-18]-AV-1451 (T807) on postmortem brain tissue. Ann Neurol. doi: 10.1002/ana.24517. PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Fiona Kumfor
    • 1
    Email author
  • Glenda M. Halliday
    • 1
  • Olivier Piguet
    • 1
  1. 1.School of Psychology, Central Medical School and Brain & Mind CentreUniversity of SydneySydneyAustralia

Personalised recommendations